Vocal Studies

Vocal Arts Center Equipment

1. KayPentax Multi-Speech, Model 3700

Multi-Speech is a comprehensive speech recording, analysis, feedback, and measurement software program. It provides spectrograms, formant traces, pitch extractions, power spectrum analysis, LPC analysis and other useful functions.

2. VoceVista: Visual Feedback for Instruction in Singing

VoceVista  is a unique hardware/software package, incorporating the two electronic signals most revealing of the singing voice: real-time spectrum analysis and electroglottograph.

3. Laryngograph

An electroglottograph used in non-invasive investigation of vocal fold behavior. Duration, velocity, and degree of vocal fold closure is visually represented by the Lx waveform.

The laryngograph analyzes vocal fold behavior non-invasively by running a small electric current through the larynx with two receptors. The current is affected by the vocal folds as they open and close, resulting in the output of a simple line graph.

Functions of the laryngograph

Open-Closure Phase Display: by studying the line graph, the subject can determine how much open and closure phase the vocal folds pass through while vibrating. The subject can then determine whether the phonation is balanced, breathy, (too long an open phase) or pressed (too long a closure phase.)

4. Kay Elemetrics, RL5 9100 Rhino-Laryngeal Stroboscope


  1. Two flexible endoscopes
  2. One rigid endoscope
  3. Rhino-Laryngeal Stroboscope

The rhino-laryngeal stroboscope system provides professional voice users with a convenient and powerful means of examining laryngeal anatomy and vocal-fold physiology. Both constant and strobe light sources are provided for either general endoscopic viewing (nasal, nasopharyngeal, or laryngeal) or stroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds during phonation. Both flexible and rigid endoscopes can be used with the system.

During stroboscopy the rapidly vibrating vocal folds are illuminated with brief pulses of light. By detecting the pitch (fundamental frequency) of the vocal folds, the timing of these flashes can be regulated through electronic circuitry to produce an image of the vocal folds vibrating slowly to permit detailed observation of vocal fold movement, or "standing still" at various positions within the vibratory cycle.

It is important to understand that the image viewed during the stroboscopic exam is not a continuous glottal cycle but a ‘‘fusion’’ of portions of successive cycles. By using stroboscopy, important dynamic aspects of phonations can be viewed clearly. *Note: examinations performed only by licensed medical personnel.

5. Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Respitrace Systems Model 10.9000

The Respitrace, a respiratory inductive plethysmograph, consists of two elastic bands with insulated wires (Respibands) wrapped around the rib cage and abdomen and connected to an Oscillator module and Calibration Unit. It measures rib cage and abdomen compartmental volume excursions through changes in self-inductance of the Respibands. The sum of these two excursions can be calibrated to a known volume with spirobag or spirometer. The sensors have insulated wire for self-induction monitoring with gold-plated contacts and come in various sizes.

6. Kay Elemetrics, Aerophone II, Model 6800

A complete system for measuring air-flow and air pressure parameters. The software displays and prints graphical and numerical analysis of peak-flow, vital capacity, duration, phonation quotient, mean air-flow rate, loudest tone level, softest tone level, sound pressure level, ab-adduction rate, subglottal air pressure, glottal power, intraoral pressure, glottal efficiency, and glottal resistance.

The Aerophone II is designed to measure vocal and respiratory functions. It records data by means of hardware transducers from which the system’s software documents these results. The software can then calculate parameters which measure air-flow, air pressure, sound pressure level, and their interrelationships.

Functions of the SP2

  1. Vital Capacity: this measures the maximum amount of air that can be expelled fro the lungs after deep inspiration; this figure is used as a reference for other calculations.
  2. Peak Flow: This measures the maximum rate at which the subject can expel his/her Vital Capacity. Peak Flow registrations give information about the contraction of the expiratory muscles.
  3. Max. Sust. Phonation: This measures the maximum time span over which the subject can conserve his/her Vital Capacity during intonation.
  4. Most Comf. Phonation: This measures the rate at which the subject expels his/her Vital Capacity during intonation on comfortable pitch level.
  5. Maximum SPL: This measures the change in airflow during intonation as the subject crescendoes from a comfortable sound level to his/her loudest possible phonation.
  6. Minimum SPL: This also measures change in airflow during intonation; however the subject now decrescendoes from a comfortable sound level to his/her softest possible phonation
  7. Changing SPL: This measures the change in air flow during intonation as the subject constantly varies the sound level.
  8. IPIPIPI (Voice Effect): This measures the pressure in any part of the supraglottic area for the vocal tract. From this, measurements of aerodynamic input power, voice efficiency, and glottal resistance can be calculated.
  9. Running Speech: This measures amplitude range, airflow, and pressure as the subject sings or speaks normally.
  10. Fast Ad/Abductions: This measures the rate at which the vocal folds approximate during phonation.
7. Brüel & Kjær, Sound Level Meter, Type 2230

An integrated meter for measurement of SPL (Sound Pressure Level), Max., and Min., and SEL (Sound Exposure Level)

8. Hitachi, Oscilloscope V-525

A portable-type, advanced-class oscilloscope which displays the Lx waveform generated by the Laryngograph.

9. Spirometrics, SMI Spirometer, Model 2451

A portable, compact, lightweight spirometer that tests pulmonary functions. Helpful in determining a singer's VC (vital capacity) and MVV (maximal voluntary ventilation).

10. A recording/playback sound system which includes:
  • Technics, Stereo Integrated Amplifier SU-V660
  • Sony, Cassette Deck TC-WR820
  • Sony, Compact Disc Player CDP-970
  • Technics, Automatic Turntable System SL-BD20
  • Tascam, Digital Audio Tape Deck DA-30
  • Aony, Stereo Center 230 (Reel-to-Reel Player)
  • Sony, Microphone ECM-989
  • Symetrix, Dual Mic Preamp SX202
  • KEF, Power Speakers (s)
  • Atus, Four Channel Phantom Power Supply CP8506
11. A recording/playback video system which includes:
  • Proton, 27‘‘ Color TV Screen VT-296
  • JVC, Video Cassette Recorder HR-D860U
  • JVC, Video Cassette Recorder HR-D600U
  • Newvicom, Color Video Camera WV-3150
  • Sony, Video Camera Selector HVS-2000
  • Modern, TVLink RGB/NTSC converter Model 20
  • RGB Dynamics, Translator TR-1500 (on trial)
12. A collection of anatomical models and charts

Helpful in conveying accurate information regarding the physiology of the singing instrument.

      13. Gateway computer

      14. Dell Laptop