In 1907, Joseph Wolfe defeated O. F. Carter in Oberlin's first Republican primary, following a bitter campaign. 1907 marked the end of the caucus system when Oberlin instead adopted the primary system. Wolfe defeated the democratic candidate Luther Munson, with 586 votes to 334. Mayor Wolfe's death in September, 1909, however, opened the door for O. F. Carter's reelection and short service as Mayor.
*From Wilbur H. Phillips, Oberlin Colony: The Story of a Century (Oberlin, 1933).
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