"Secondary Private Applied Study" in the
Conservatory of Music
INFORMATION AND AUDITION REQUIREMENTS
*First Week of Classes
For New & Returning Conservatory, Double Degree, & Arts and Science Students:
Click Here For Secondary Lesson Information on: Printer Friendly Version
Artist Diploma Student (ADIP) Restrictions
Audition Forms & Consent - For Returning Secondary Students
Audition Forms & Consent - For New Secondary Students
Audition Forms & Consent - For Jazz Split Students
Audition Forms & Consent - Information & Downloads
Audition Repertoire & Requirements
Auditions - Do I Have To Re-Audition?
Credits & Lesson Requirements
Faculty Consent Via E-Signature
Faculty Contacts & Instruments
Fees For Additional Secondary Lessons
Fees For Non-Credit Lessons
Grades For Secondary Lessons
Non-Credit Secondary Lessons
Non-Credit or For Credit option Changes
Practice Rooms, Keys, & Instruments
Piano Auditions & Consent
Pre-Requisite For Secondary Lessons
Registration for Secondary Lessons
Student Teachers (Info Page)
Teacher Assignments, Faculty or Student Taught?
Audition Forms & Consent - For Returning Secondary Students :
FALL: Most students will not receive consent or be able to register for secondary lessons during the April pre-registration process or during the summer. In fact, you will not submit applications until you return to campus for fall add/drop. At that time you must complete and submit a secondary consent form in order to receive consent. You will not automatically receive a reminder or consent, and/or registration. Please follow the instructions and submit forms as listed below by the*first week of classes should you wish to continue and/or add new secondary lessons. Forms should be submitted to the Conservatory Office of the Associate Deans, Main Office during the first week of classes. Click here if you have trouble finding your teacher...
SPRING: Students who registered in the Fall for secondary lessons will automatically be consented for lessons in the spring - see your Registration Status on PRESTO for CRN # and will not need to re-audition or complete another form as long as they are the same lesson, same teacher, and same credit hour. Remember, YOU still must Register by the Add/Drop Deadline.
"What If I Want To Change My Non-Credit or For Credit Lesson Option For Spring?"
There are three options to consider when changing your lessons for Spring semester...
A. If you auditioned in the Fall for lessons for credit, but were placed in non-credit lessons...then you must re-audtion and re-submit a form in the Spring. Please sign up on the bulletin board and take a new form with you to your audition.
B. If you auditioned in the Fall and were placed in lessons for credit, but took non-credit lessons because you did not have room in your schedule for 2 credit hours...then you must re-submit a form in the Spring. You should not need to re-audition, but you will need to complete the audition/consent form with a faculty sponsor signature and teacher assignment. Please submit the form to the Main Office before the last day of the 1st week of classes.
C. If you were consented and registered for lessons for credit in the Fall, but do not have room in your schedule to take them for credit in the Spring...then you will need to contact the Office of the Associate Deans to notify them of your change in status. You may continue your lessons with your student teacher, however you must pay them directly $7.50 per 1/2-hour lesson. See Non-Credit Lessons for details.
Audition Forms & Consent - For New Secondary Students:
Students without previous secondary lesson credit on an instrument who want lessons for 2 credits must sign up for auditions outside of Conservatory Bibbins 113 during the *first week of classes in the fall and/or spring (for some instruments) and follow the instructions as listed below. Auditions take place during the first week of add/drop. Please contact faculty chairs if you need further information on the audition process, times, & dates. Please take a completed form to your audition. You may also contact Cindy.Shairba@oberlin.edu during the 3rd week of classes if you have been assigned or already know you wish to take non-credit lessons and would like a list of student teachers for your instrument.
Info: New students are introduced to music opportunities on their first day of Fall Orientation at the New Student Music Resource Fair in the Conservatory. Students can meet faculty & student groups, and learn about applied study (Secondary Lessons) programs as well as large and small ensemble opportunities.
Audition Forms & Consent - For Jazz Split Students:
Jazz students wishing to split classical/jazz lessons; or students who would like to change their default private study credit hour must submit a Private Study Change Hour Approval form available in the Office of the Associate Deans, Main Office (instead of a secondary lesson form - they are usually green in color). These forms are also due the first week of classes. Click here for information on obtaining signatures.
Audition/Consent Forms and Information:
- Secondary Study Audition/Consent forms and sign-ups are available outside the Conservatory’s Main Office (Bibbins 113). Please sign up for a time during the first week of class, and take the completed form with you to your audition.
If an audition is not required, instead take the form to the faculty instructor for signature, and then submit to Conservatory Bibbins 113 for consent. These forms are due the *first week of add/drop in order to receive consent.
Students must register by the add/drop deadline.
Printable secondary lesson forms will be available online during the first and second week of classes. (Expires on the add/drop deadline.)
- Students who have taken credit lessons at Oberlin within the past two semesters are not required to re-audition, but are required to submit an audition/consent form once per year - usually Fall. (Though not required to re-audition, students may be asked to play again for faculty sponsor to assist with student/faculty teaching placement and assignments.) If a faculty member has approved you for secondary study without an audition, please submit the consent form, signed by the faculty member, to the Main Conservatory Office by the end of the *first week of classes.
"What If My Teacher Is Not On Campus?"
Helpful Hint: If faculty teacher/sponsor is not on campus for signature, an e-mail consent may be attached to secondary lesson form to ensure consent and registration prior to add/drop deadline. In a doc or e-mail format, faculty must specify the name of the faculty or student teacher assigned and acknowledge permission of lessons. Please begin your effort before the 1st week of classes.
- "Why Don't I Have Consent or Teacher Assignment Yet?"
What is taking so long?: Each semester over 300 students audition and/or submit consent requests for secondary lessons. These consent forms must be processed, reviewed for teacher & credit approval, and assigned an approved student or faculty teacher. Consent is then entered and students register for classes.
Please allow us 2-3 days to enter your consent once we receive your form. You may send an e-mail inquiry if you have checked your Registration Status on PRESTO and do not have consent one-day prior to the add/drop deadline. Checking on your status beforehand will only slow-down the process. Thank you for your patience.
- Why don't you have my form?: Many auditions take place the first week of classes and some the second week of classes. Due to the continuous flow of consents, administrators are not able to send individual e-mails following each consent. Administrators can only enter consent for forms that have been submitted to the Main Office by either the student or faculty. I.e. if a student auditions on Tuesday during the first week of classes, but the administrator does not receive the form from the department until the second week of classes - consenting and teacher assignment is delayed.
- 1 Consent, 2 Register, 3 Teacher Assignment: The main objective is to consent students as quickly as possible so that registration can occur prior to the add/drop deadline. Students can check their Registration Status in PRESTO for their PVST CRN arrival. Once all approved consents have been entered during the first two weeks of classes, student and faculty teacher assignments are finalized, posted, and e-mailed during the third week of classes. We appreciate your patience during this process.
- Consent Rolls from Fall to Spring, but Not Spring to Fall: Students who registered for secondary lessons in the fall semester will automatically be consented to continue their instruction (i.e. same instrument, same teacher) in the spring semester, and do not need to complete a new form unless switching to a new instrument or teacher. ALL students returning fall semester will need a new form. If a student switches to a different teacher, the Office of Associate Dean MUST be informed ASAP even if it is faculty approved. Registration and student pay can be effected without proper teacher specification.
Click here for an easy way to find out if you've been consented
for your secondary private study and the CRN number.
Audition Repertoire & Requirements:
Check the bulletin board outside of the Conservatory Main Office, Bibbins 113. On the sign-up sheets many faculty post updates to specific repertoire required for audition each semester. After checking the board, you may e-mail Cindy Shairba or faculty instructors for more information regarding audition repertoire. Please see below for general information:
* Voice: one classical composition (memorization required)
* Piano: two contrasting works (portions heard; memorization preferred)
* String: one work representative of ability (memorization not required)
* Jazz: one piece that best demonstrates performer's ability on instrument.
* Comp/Tech: Bring two original compositions.
(If available, bring scores, recordings, and accompanying program/technical notes.)
* Other instruments: two contrasting compositions or movements
(memorization not required)
General Audition Information:
- Auditions last 5-15 minutes depending on the instrument.
- Auditions may include demonstration of skills (scales sight-reading, harmonization, by-ear playing) as requested by auditioners.
(Jazz) unaccompanied improvisation on blues may be requested.
- Accompanists are provided for vocal auditions only.
- Students assigned to faculty and supervised student teachers receive half-hour weekly lessons (thirteen per semester) for two credits per semester. Faculty-taught lessons receive a grade, while Student-taught lessons are Pass/No Pass. Students must successfully complete a minumum of ten 1/2-hour lessons in order to receive a passing grade in their secondary faculty or student taught lessons. Students wishing to change faculty/student teachers or are having problems with their secondary lessons must contact the Conservatory Office of Associate Deans prior to the add/drop deadline.
Three levels of supervised secondary private study are available to new and returning Conservatory, Double Degree, and Arts & Sciences students:
i. Faculty-taught secondary lessons (for 2 credits* - Graded);
ii. Student-taught secondary lessons (for 2 credits* - P/NP);
iii. Student-taught (non credit; payment required - No Grade, No P/NP)
iv. Faculty-taught (non credit; - This is NOT an option!)
* Secondary lessons (Registered): Must be taken for 2 credits.
Please make room in your schedule for 2 credit hours prior to requesting lessons for credit! 0 or 1 credit option is Not available, and you may be contacted regarding your status should you fail to register once consented. If you prefer non-credit lessons (or do not have room in your schedule for 2 credit hours), please do not sign up for an audition time - but contact Cindy.Shairba@oberlin.edu instead for non-credit lessons.
$$$ Students who pass an audition in more than one instrument or voice category may be permitted to register for lessons in multiple areas, but may be assessed a fee for each additional area of study (please consult with the Conservatory Dean's Office for a fee schedule.)
Faculty Contacts & Instruments:
Sign up for an audition time on the Secondary Lesson board outside the Main Office Bibbins 113. Auditions are typically scheduled before the end of the *first full week of classes. (A few may not post auditions until the 2nd week of classes.)
Complete the secondary lesson application form in its entirety, follow instructions, and submit it at the audition and/or meeting. If you still have specific questions please contact faculty listed below...
- Bassoon - Professor George Sakakeeny, Conservatory Bibbins 137, x58242.
- Composition - Professor Josh Levine, Kohl Bldg. 312, x55286.
- Guitar (Classical) - Professor Stephen Aron, Robertson 169, x56468.
- Flute - Professor Alexa Still, Conservatory Bibbins 141, x58260.
- Harp - Professor Yolanda Kondonassis, Conservatory Robertson 124, x58033. Note: Students interested in Harp are usually asked to attend a meeting the first week of each semester. They will not audition, but will be given a syllabus, secondary study expectations, and assignment to a student teacher. Bring your consent form!
- Harpsichord - Professor Webb Wiggins, Conservatory Bibbins 134, x58216.
- Historical Performance - Professor David Breitman, Bibbins 104, x58215.
- Horn - Professor Roland Pandolfi, Conservatory Bibbins 142, x58246.
- Oboe - Professor Robert Walters, Conservatory Bibbins 135, x58211.
- Jazz Bass - Professor Peter Dominguez, Kohl Bldg. 209, x58109.
- Jazz Guitar - Professor Bobby Ferrazza, Kohl Bldg. 215, x58274.
- Jazz Trombone - Professor Steve Turre, Kohl Bldg. 213, x58292.
- Jazz (Other Instruments) - Julie Baker, Kohl Bldg. 200A-K, x56675.
Note: Jazz audition information and sign-up sheets can be found on the Jazz Studies Board on the 2nd floor of the Kohl Building; or outside the Main Conservatory Office Bibbins 113.
- Organ - Professor James David Christie, Bibbins 133, x58255.
- Percussion - Professor Michael Rosen, Conservatory Central 38, x58271. Note: auditions for percussion take place in Central 38. Central is the corridor between the Conservatory Library and the Robertson practice wing of the bldg.
Percussion - Professor Jamey Haddad. Conservatory Central 34, x58282. (If he assigns e-permission for lessons, you will need to attach to your lesson form.)
- Piano - Professor Andrea McAlister, Conservatory Robertson 127 or 340, x56155.
- Recorder - Professor Kathryn Montoya, Conservatory Robertson 126, x56688.
- Strings - Professor Peter Slowik, Conservatory Bibbins 332, x58235.
- Timara (Tech) - Professor Thomas Lopez, Bibbins Basement, Studio 8.
- Trombone - Professor Lee Allen (Morgan), Conservatory Bibbins 138, x58262.
- Trumpet - Professor (Jack Brndiar F13) (Roy Poper S14), Bibbins 140, x58222.
- Tuba - Professor Dennis Nulty, Dennis.Nulty@oberlin.edu.
- Voice - Professor Lorraine Manz, Bibbins 128, x58175.
- Other Instruments: Condeans@oberlin.edu, Conservatory Bibbins Main Office.
If you prefer non-credit lessons, please do not audition. If you prefer, or have been placed in non-credit lessons, instead contact Cindy.Shairba@oberlin.edu (Bibbins 126, x58198) during the 3rd week of classes for a list of available teachers for your voice or instrument. Non-Credit students will be placed with an approved to teach Conservatory Major as available.
We do NOT offer non-credit lessons with faculty instructors. The $7.50 payment option for non-credit lessons applies only to student-taught lessons.
Students pay the student teacher directly $7.50 per 1/2 hr. non-credit lesson. Though a minimal fee is required only of completed lessons, please contact your student teacher in advance if you need to cancel your lesson. (Fees for students taking lessons for 2 credit hours are included in tuition fees, and the Conservatory pays the student instructors.)
You will not receive a CRN or register for these lessons, nor are you required to audition or complete a Secondary Lessons Audition/Consent form. These lessons will not appear on a student's transcript, and are not available for "0" credit or audit option.
Students have the option to change their Non-Credit status at the beginning of Spring semester.
(Check outside Conservatory Bibbins 340 for specific dates/times) Updated 8/21/13!
Please look outside Conservatory Bibbins 326 for audition information and for sign-up sheets for audition times. Be sure to have your consent form ready to submit at the audition.
- New students who are Non-Piano Conservatory Majors may audition during orientation week. Sign up for audition times outside of Bibbins room 236.
- Returning Conservatory students who wish to place out of their secondary piano requirement should audition during the first week of classes. Sign-up sheets will be posted outside Bibbins 326. Further instructions will be listed on the sign-up sheet. Please contact Professor Andrea McAlister for more information.
- Returning Conservatory students who have fulfilled their piano requirement and are interested in secondary piano lessons may audition during the first week of classes. Sign-up sheets will be posted outside Bibbins 326. Further instructions will be listed on the sign-up sheet. Please contact Professor Andrea McAlister for more information.
- Conservatory students without prior piano experience do not need to take a placement audition. Please sign up for a piano class (APST 110, sections 01-06). Sign-up sheets will be posted outside Bibbins 326 during orientation or the first week of classes. Further instructions will be listed on the sign-up sheet. Please contact Professor Andrea McAlister for more information.
- New & returning Arts and Sciences students interested in secondary piano lessons may audition during the first week of classes. Students may be placed into private lessons with student teachers or faculty for credit-bearing lessons. Sign-up sheets will be posted outside Bibbins 326. Further instructions will be listed on the sign-up sheet. Space is limited. Please contact Professor Andrea McAlister for more information.
- Repertoire: Students will be asked
to sight read, harmonize, and play a few scales and chords. One solo may
be prepared that represents your highest level of playing but is not
- Spring Semester: Space is limited. Please sign up for an audition time outside of Bibbins 113, 326or contact Andrea.McAlister@oberlin.edu regarding a spring audition and placement.
Pease contact Andrea.McAlister@oberlin.edu if you have questions about secondary piano instruction.
Practice Rooms, Keys, & Instruments:
During the 3rd week of classes, students taking secondary lessons for credit may contact Irene.Harris@oberlin.edu regarding practice room assignments and keys. Please wait for the 3rd week of classes as Ms. Brady will not have a complete student lesson list until this time. Once assignments are posted, students with particular instruments such as jazz drum/percussion will be given a key form and room assignment. All other College and Conservatory students are welcome to use the practice rooms in Robertson Hall, which are available on a first come, first serve basis.
Please consult your Student Handbook under the section titled "Regulations and Procedures of the Conservatory of Music" regarding practice room assignments. For specific questions regarding practice room assignments and keys please contact Irene.Harris@oberlin.edu. For questions regarding locker assignments, please contact Heather.Martin@oberlin.edu. Bachelor of Music students will be given preference regarding locker and/or practice room assignments. We cannot provide storage for non-major students - not limited to, but especially drum kits. At this time we do not provide the rental of instruments for secondary lessons.
Pre-Requisites For Secondary Lessons (For Credit):
Secondary lessons are open to enrolled Conservatory, Double-Degree, and Arts and Sciences students.
There are no pre-requisites for secondary lessons. Many departments offer lessons for credit for beginners, while others prefer some experience on an instrument in either non-credit or private lessons prior to an audition for lessons for credit. Faculty or Student taught lesson placement may be based on skill and/or availability of teachers within the department. Please feel free to contact the faculty for more information.
Students must have 2 credit hours of room in their schedule in order to audition for secondary lessons for credit with either a student or faculty instructor.
Please Note: Completion of Theory & Aural Skills is NOT a requirement of Arts and Sciences or Conservatory students prior to registration for secondary lessons.
Artist Diploma Students (ADIP) are not permitted to register for secondary lessons due their underload hour restriction.
Registration For Secondary Lessons:
All students interested in registering for secondary private study for credit must complete an audition/consent form each academic year.
Deadline: The first Friday of the FIRST WEEK of classes!
To receive credit for secondary lessons,
you must register for this course in PRESTO
before the add/drop registration ends on
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12th, 2012 for Fall 2013
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 12th, 2014 for Spring 2014
It is the student's responsibility to Add, Drop, Withdraw,
& Register appropriately for private study!
- "How Do I Register For My Lessons?" Most consent is issued during the second week of class just prior to the add/drop deadline. Students can check their consent on PRESTO under Registration Status. Due to the volume of requests, many consents occur the day before/or the last day of add/drop (registration). Once you have been issued a Secondary Private Study or "PVST" CRN number - you may register. You may also search and confirm your lesson title and CRN in the online schedule of classes.
- If assigned to a teacher for secondary lessons for credit, you must register on PRESTO before the add/drop deadline. Please note: it is the student’s responsibility to check on consent in PRESTO and to register, add, drop, or withdraw lessons prior to registrar deadlines.
- Please Note: There are two section numbers listed for each secondary instrument/teacher; one is faculty taught (Sections 01 to 50), the other is student taught (Sections 51 to 100). If you are assigned to a student teacher, the faculty name will still appear on your registration even though the student is your instructor. This faculty will act as "Faculty Sponsor" and supervisor of your lessons.
2364PVST066012FSec Pvt Saxophone:Faculty TaughtSmith John2365PVST066512FSec Pvt Saxophone:Student TaughtSmith John
- Final Teacher Assignments will be posted outside of the Main Office, Bibbins 113, or sent via e-mail after ALL students have received their consent - usually the 3rd week of classes.
- Faculty or Student teacher placement can be determined by the section number of your consented course.
- Students receiving consent should have already registered at this point using their PVST CRN from their Registration Status on PRESTO. Some students will not receive consent, and may have been assigned to non-credit lessons that do not require CRNs or registration (There is no audit or 0 credit option for private study).
- You may contact your teacher at email@example.com to get started with lessons as soon as you have your assignment. For piano audition results, see Andrea McAlister in Bibbins 340, or check your e-mail.
- The Office of the Associate Deans makes every effort to assign teachers to successfully auditioning students, but please note that a positive audition does not automatically ensure placement. Students will be assigned to faculty and supervised student teachers to that the extent that there is room available in these studios, with priority given to students needing to fulfill a private study requirement.
Please direct questions about secondary lessons to Dean Andrea Kalyn,
Office of Associate Deans, Bibbins 113, Oberlin Conservatory of Music,
77 W College St, Oberlin, OH 44074;
telephone (440) 775-8293; email firstname.lastname@example.org
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FOR STUDENT TEACHERS
Conservatory students who would like to be approved to teach secondary credit or non-credit lessons should contact their teacher or department chair. Chair will notify email@example.com and you will then be placed on an approved to teach list.
Being a student teacher is an honor and wonderful experience for your careers; but it also involves great responsibility. You will be held accountable for the following information pertaining to lesson structure & payment:
1. It is the secondary lesson student's responsibility to submit a secondary lesson consent form. Please do not bring these in for them. The student should submit them to faculty for signature. Once returned to the Office of the Associate Deans, student teacher assignments are confirmed. Once confirmed via e-mail, please contact your student via e-mail to set up lesson times for the semester.
2. Your student(s) must be registered using the appropriate CRN for lessons prior to the add/drop deadline. Students not registered are considered "non-credit" and will not receive a grade or credit for their lessons. (The Conservatory will not pay you for these lessons.)
3. Your assignment was faculty approved. Once assigned, you will not be allowed to change students without Associate Deans approval. This causes a registrational error much like switching from Chemistry to Biology without changing registration. This usually results in secondary course failure for your student. Also, student teachers will not be paid for students not officially assigned to them. A change must not only be approved by the faculty sponsor, but our office - so contact our office at firstname.lastname@example.org for discrepancies or changes as soon as possible!
4. Contact our office immediately if your student decides they do not have room in their schedule, misses several lessons, or you experience any other difficulties. You will only be paid for completed lessons - you do not receive pay should student or teacher fail to attend. The lesson dates listed on student pay sheet indicate completed lessons.
5. Student-taught secondary lessons receive "Pass or No-Pass" Grading: You will be expected to submit midterm grades before fall/spring recess, and final grades before exams for your registered students. Please submit these grades via e-mail to your faculty teacher as they will act as faculty sponsor for these lessons and ultimately submit the grades. If you fail to submit grades, the default grade is "No-Pass" for your student...and they will not be happy.
Note: It is important that you submit a midterm grade - especially "N" for not attending. This is the only alert to the student or our office that they may be registered for lessons...they did not intend to take. They will receive NP on their transcript if they do not fix!
6. Your students must take lessons for 2 credit hours. 0 or 1 credit is not available. If they are not registered for 2 credit hours, then they are considered "Non-credit" lessons. They will not receive credit or a grade and they must pay you $7.50 per 1/2-hour session. The Conservatory will not pay you for these lessons. (See below for non-credit payment info.)
7. You should be giving 1/2-hour lessons 1-per week for the length of the semester (estimated 13 weeks; not to exceed 13.5 half-hour lessons per student, per semester - A minimum of 10 half-hour lessons per semester) You may need to teach a 1 hr lesson or 2, 1/2 hr lessons per week to catch up with the start of the semester to accommodate delayed assignments. Please see your faculty sponsor for suggested lesson materials.
8. Finally, Secondary lessons for credit are considered "Supervised" student teaching. This means your faculty teacher/sponsor should be informed of your student(s)' progression in lessons. During the semester please schedule an appointment with your faculty teacher/sponsor to hear your student perform; and contact your faculty teacher/sponsor for specific performance requirements.
HOW DO I GET PAID?
In order to be paid for secondary teaching, you must complete the
1. If you've never worked on campus before, you must first go to the Student Employment Office in Carnegie and complete your I-9 and tax forms. You will need the required identification listed on the Employment Eligibility Verification [I-9 Form]. PHOTOCOPIES OF DOCUMENTS ARE NOT ACCEPTABLE. After completing your I-9, you must then go to step 2 below.
2. If you HAVE worked on campus before, you only need to complete the Student Employment Form. This must be done every school year for each on-campus position. Completed forms must be submitted in the folder on the bulletin board outside the Conservatory Dean's Office (Bibbins 113) or at the Conservatory Annex above the bookstore. (Hard copies of blank forms are available there as well.)
3. Secondary pay sheets are due biweekly by noon and must be signed by you and your teacher. Due dates are listed on the pay sheet. Pay sheets are to be picked up and dropped off in the Conservatory Main Office (Bibbins 113) at the Receptionist's Desk. Final pay sheets are due exam week prior to break. Students will not be paid retro-amounts for previous semesters of teaching.
Helpful Hint: Get final faculty signatures before final exams and BEFORE CLASSES END! It will be difficult to catch them for a signature after this date.
4. You will not be paid by the Conservatory for non-credit lessons or for
students who forgot to register, so please confirm registration with
your student before lessons begin. Non-Credit students (or those not
registered) must pay you directly $7.50 per half hour lesson. You will only be paid for completed lessons.
Please Note: You will not be paid for students you were not approved to teach. This means if you switch students around without the approval of email@example.com, then your fee schedule will not be adjusted accordingly. We will send a student confirm e-mail - please make sure all of your students are on it. Thank you.
Please contact Irene Harris x55530 who is located in the Conservatory Annex (Above the Bookstore) if you have questions regarding payment procedures for secondary lessons.
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