logo

figure

course catalog

e-mail

contact us

search

home



In this Department

Catalog 

 Other Links

Politics

The study of Politics explores many dimensions of political life, ranging from small groups to citizens' organizations to cities, nation-states, and the international system. Although this includes basic information about government, law, and current events, it also examines issues of power, citizenship, and justice in broader and deeper context. Oberlin's Department of Politics presents a variety of perspectives on politics, including economic, historical, philosophical, sociological, and behavioral orientations. The Department encourages its students to develop sophisticated understandings of the conditions and uses of political power in the United States and the world, and to hone their analytical and critical abilities.
A major in Politics can be the focus of a liberal arts program in the social sciences. It can help the citizen to understand, and act more effectively in, the political realm. The major leads to
careers in government service, international affairs, journalism, teaching, and organizations concerned with social change and public affairs. It also prepares students for graduate study in political science, other social sciences, international studies, law, and public policy.
Choosing Courses. The Department of Politics offers course work in four fields: American politics (the analysis of politics, government, policy, and law in the U.S.), comparative politics (the study of politics in other countries), international politics (the study of political relations among countries), and political theory (the history, interpretation, and criticism of political ideas through texts).
We encourage prospective majors to explore course offerings in each of the four fields. The Department offers regular courses, colloquia, seminars, private readings and honors projects. Introductory courses, numbered in the 100s (including colloquia), open into each of the department's fields and do not have prerequisites. Intermediate courses, numbered in the 200s, normally require some previous preparation and constitute the core of departmental offerings for majors. Seminars, numbered in the 300s, generally require previous intermediate-level work. Students should consult members of the department before choosing courses at this level. Private readings on topics not specifically covered in courses may be arranged with individual faculty. They may involve reading and discussion, research, or fieldwork, are generally at an intermediate or advanced level, and are carried out largely independently.
Advanced Placement. Students with a score of 5 on AP examinations in American government, comparative politics, or general political science will be awarded credit towards graduation and the major. Such credit will count as an introductory course for purposes of course prerequisites and the department's optional concentrations, depending on the examinations passed.
Major. The Department encourages students to consult a faculty member when they begin to consider a major in Politics. When declaring a major, students work with a faculty advisor to develop a program that fits the student's interest and goals.
The Politics Major requires completion of: (a) a minimum of thirty credits in Politics, of which twenty must be above the introductory level; (b) intermediate courses in at least three of the Department's four fields; (c) a Politics research seminar; and (d) twelve hours in related social sciences or, for concentrators, other courses as specified by the department. At least fifteen credits must be taken from the Oberlin Politics Department.
Within the major, students may choose a concentration in any of the four fields, or in policy analysis. Although requirements for a concentration do not increase the general major requirement of thirty hours in politics, they will structure the choice of courses. Details may be obtained from a Politics Department professor who teaches within the concentration that a student is considering.
Minor. A minor in Politics consists of fifteen hours in Politics, with at least two courses at the intermediate level or above. Courses must be in at least two fields. At least eight credits must be taken from the Oberlin Politics Department.
Honors. Honors in Politics is a three-semester program in which students do sustained, independent reading and research under faculty supervision. A detailed description of the program is available in the Department office. Each January, the Department reviews the academic records of all junior majors and invites some of them to become candidates for honors. In the second semester of the junior year, such students normally undertake a junior project, which consists of a research paper done in the context of a seminar or other course. (Students who are away from Oberlin during that semester should consult the chair to work out an alternative.) Students who successfully complete junior projects are invited to pursue Senior Honors in one of the four departmental fields.
During their senior year, honors students write a thesis and take oral and written examinations, administered by an outside examiner, in their chosen field. Such students enroll for honors research courses (POLT 403, 404) totaling two to five hours each semester. Because the honors program builds on intermediate courses, we urge students interested in pursuing honors to enroll in courses in their expected field of interest as early as possible.
Winter Term. Department members who are participating in Winter Term sponsor projects including community service, off-campus internships, and other activities. Areas of particular
interest are: Mr. Blecher: readings in comparative politics, Chinese and Asian politics, socialism, political economy, Marxism. Mr. Crowley: issues in post-communist politics, international relations of the Soviet Union and the former Soviet Republics, political sociology, theoretical issues in comparative politics. Mr. Dawson: local government and community service. Mr. Howell: trade unions, political economy, left-wing parties, and readings in West European politics. Mr. Kahn: First Amendment, race and gender discrimination, urban politics, Federal courts and environmental issues, law and government. Ms. Kruks: feminist theory, contemporary continental theory, and history of political thought. Ms. Sandberg: international development, African politics. Mr. Schiff: international organizations, Middle Eastern politics, arms transfers and arms control, other topics in international politics. Ms. Schildkraut: polling and public opinion analysis, media and politics, language and immigration policy, interest groups, and political participation. Mr. Wilson: history of political theory, environmental topics, utopias and dystopias, democratic theory, postmodernism and politics.
In addition, the Department annually sponsors a January Winter Term Congressional Internship program. Information may be obtained from the Department office.
The Oberlin Initiative in Electoral Politics. The Department oversees a program of course offerings (POLT 421, 422, 207) and paid, eight-week summer internships designed to interest students in, and prepare them for, service in elective offices. Information is available from the Department office.
Politics On-Line. For more information on the Politics Department, courses and instructors, please visit our home page at www.oberlin.edu/~politics.
Cross-Referenced Courses. The following cross-referenced courses can be counted towards the Politics major or minor, but do not satisfy the 15 (major) or 8 (minor) minimum departmental credit requirement.
AAST 235. Government and Politics of Africa Mr. Saaka
AAST 336. Pan-Africanism Political Perspective Mr. Saaka

 

 

back to top

Introductory Courses

American Politics
101. Colloquium: Race and Ethnicity in American Politics 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
103. Political Change in America 4 hours
4SS, CD, WR
Introduction to American politics, political development, national institutions, and constitutional law. Topics include: the Supreme Court, the right of privacy (abortion choice), and gender discrimination; interest groups, Congress and the politics of agenda setting: nuclear power, pesticides, smoking, and RU 486 (The Abortion Pill); how presidential power and American politics shape each other from FDR to Clinton; introduction to pluralist, critical pluralist, and political and history interpretations of American politics and democracy. This is a cross-referenced course in Women's Studies. Enrollment Limit: 75.
Sem 1 POLT-103-01 MWF 11:00-12:15 Mr. Kahn
Discussion sections to be arranged
105. American Government: Institutions, Policies, and Politics 4 hours
4SS, WR
Next offered 2002-2003.
106. Mass Politics 3 hours
3SS
Provides an introduction to the American political system by examining the ways Americans influence their government. Examines campaigns and elections, voting behavior, the media,
interest groups, and political parties. The interactions between citizens and governmental institutions are examined historically and through contemporary cases that examine electoral laws, federalism, political corruption, civil rights and liberties, social movements, and campaign reform. Several forms of political participation are covered, including electoral participation, citizen groups, and protest. Enrollment Limit: 45.
Sem 2 POLT-106-01 MWF 11:00-11:50 Ms. Schildkraut
Comparative Politics
110. Revolution, Socialism and Reform in China 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
This course begins with a chronological overview, from ancient times to the present. Then we proceed topically, focusing on: politics and the state; political economy (rural and industrial development); gender relations; population; cultural politics. Written work consists of take-home, open-book essays, and weekly discussion questions or comments on the readings. We will also screen and discuss several films. Counts towards the East Asian Studies major. Enrollment Limit: 45.
Sem 2 POLT-110-01 MWF 1:30-2:20 Mr. Blecher
111. Colloquium: What's Left? Left Governments In Power in 3 hours
Europe and North America
3SS, WR
Next offered 2002-2003.
114. West European Politics: Left and Right in Transition 3 hours
3SS
This course examines politics in Western Europe, focusing upon the evolution of political parties and social movements. The last two decades have seen dramatic changes on the Left and Right of the political spectrum, with the eclipse of Eurocommunism and Christian Democracy, the transformation of Social Democracy, and the rise of the far right, Green parties, and new social movements. Politics in France, Germany, Britain, Italy and Sweden will be examined to explore these developments. Enrollment Limit: 60.
Sem 1 POLT 114-01 Tu Th 11:00-12:15 Mr. Howell
115. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
Next offered 2002-2003.
International Politics
120. Introduction to International Relations 3 hours
3SS, WR
Next offered 2002-2003.
121. International Politics 4 hours
4SS
Introduces the modern international system, nationalism, imperialism, war, diplomacy, international organizations and law, global economic relations, and International Relations theory. Discussion sections integrate the work of the course with consideration of current events. Students must enroll in lecture session 01 and in one discussion group 02, 03 or 04. Enrollment Limit: 55.
Sem 2 POLT-121-01 TuTh 11:00-12:15 Mr. Schiff
POLT-121-02 F 9:00-9:50 Mr. Schiff Limit: 20
POLT-121-03 F 10:00-10:50 Mr. Schiff Limit: 20
POLT-121-04 F 11:00-11:50 Mr. Schiff Limit: 20
Political Theory
131. Problems of Political Theory 3 hours
3SS, WR
Introduction to some continuing problems and issues in political theory through readings in both classical and modern texts, including Plato, Locke, Mill, and contemporary writings. Special attention is given to ideas of justice, community, freedom, and democracy. Each student must attend a discussion section either 10:00 or 11:00 Fridays. Enrollment Limit: 45.
Sem 1 POLT-131-01 TuTh 10:00-10:50 Mr. Wilson
Discussion sections to be arranged.
132. Colloquium: Explaining Social Power: Classical and 3 hours
Contemporary Theories
3SS, WR
For full course description see section entitled "Colloquia for First- and Second-Year Students."
Sem 2 POLT-132-01 TuTh 3:00-4:15 Ms. Kruks

  

back to top

Intermediate Courses

American Politics
202. American Constitutional Law 4 hours
4SS, CD, WR
The case method is used to analyze the principles of the American Constitution and Supreme Court decision-making. Topics include: presidential, congressional, and Supreme Court power; state versus national control of social policy and commerce; equal protection of the law and race, gender, sexual orientation; implied fundamental rights to abortion choice, education, and sexual intimacy; First Amendment rights of free speech and religion, and modern constitutional theories. This is a core course in the Law and Society Program. Prerequisites: One course in politics or consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 75.
Sem 2 POLT-202-01 MWF 11:00-12:15 Mr. Kahn
Discussion sections to be arranged.
204 Political Inquiry: Investigations into Controversial Issues 3 hours
3SS, Qph
This course introduces the use of quantitative and qualitative methods for investigating political issues such as the death penalty, immigration, campaign reform, gender and ethnicity, and other policy controversies. Students will develop research designs and learn how to collect, analyze, and present data. The course emphasizes hands-on training that will provide useful skills for academic and professional settings. No prior statistics background necessary. Coursework includes weekly assignments and a final team project. Enrollment Limit: 45.
Sem 2 POLT-204-01 MWF 2:30-3:20 Ms. Schildkraut
206. American Public Opinion 3 hours
3SS
Addresses the impact of public opinion on the political process and vice versa. Topics include the nature of attitude stability and change, the role of the media in opinion-formation, the relationship between elite and mass opinions, the link between public opinion and democracy. Analysis of elections is a central feature of the course. Students will become critical consumers and competent users of opinion data through analysis of surveys and experiments. Enrollment Limit: 55.
Sem 1 POLT-206-01 MWF 1:30-2:20 Ms. Schildkraut
207. Electioneering: Theory and Practice 3 hours
3SS, WR
Next offered 2002-2003.
208. Environmental Policy 3 hours
3SS
Identical to ENVS 208.
Sem 2 POLT-208-01 TuTh 3:00-4:15 Mr. Orr
209. Public Policy in America 3-4 hours
3-4SS
This course is concerned with diagnosing the sources of folly in the making of public policy and with developing those political skills of analysis that enhance policy-making effectiveness. Academic perspectives expose historical errors. An emphasis on experiential learning makes the acquisition of political skills personally meaningful. Prerequisites: two courses in American politics. Enrollment Limit: 25.
Sem 2 POLT-209-01 TuTh 3:00-4:15 Mr. Dawson
Comparative Politics
211. Political Movements and Revolutions 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
212. The Political Economy of Development in Asia 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
A survey of relationship of politics and economy in India, China, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, including: legacies of historical structures; effects of imperialism; state formation; rural development; industrial development; finance; international economic relationships. Key issues include: capitalism vs. state socialism; export-led industrialization vs. import substitution; the position and role of labor. Written work consists of take home, open book essays. Prerequisites: One course in the social sciences. No background in economics is required. Counts towards the East Asian Studies major. Enrollment Limit: 45.
Sem 1 POLT-212-01 MWF 1:30-2:20 Mr. Blecher
214. Social Change and Political Transformation in Eastern Europe 3 hours
3SS
Identical to SOCI 230.
Sem 2 POLT-214-01 MWF 3:30-4:20 Mr. Vujacic
216. The Political Economy of Advanced Capitalism 3 hours
3SS,WR
This course is an introduction to comparative political economy, broadly defined as the ways in which the triangular relationship between the state, labor and capital differs from one advanced capitalist country to another. The course will examine the political economies of Britain, France, Germany, Sweden, the US, and Japan, paying particular attention to international economic integration, the position of women and minorities, and challenges to the welfare state and trade unions. Enrollment Limit: 30.
Sem 1 POLT-216-01 TuTh 3:00-4:15 Mr. Howell
218. Marxist Analysis of Society and Politics 3 hours
3SS, WR
What can Marxian social science contribute to understanding important political, social and economic questions in various countries? Topics may include: capitalist crisis; the state; class in relation to gender, race and nation; cities; development; the environment; globalization; ideology; postmodernity; social movements; feasible socialist futures. Prerequisite: Politics 239, or consent of instructors, which will be granted to students demonstrating familiarity with Marxist theory or willing to develop it through guided winter-term readings. Enrollment Limit: 60.
Sem 2 POLT-218-01 TuTh 1:30-2:45 Mr. Blecher, Mr. Howell
219. Work, Workers and Trade Unions in Advanced Capitalist Societies 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
International Politics
224. Topics in Contemporary African Affairs 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
Next offered 2002-2003.
225. International Organization 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
227. War, Weapons, and Arms Control 3 hours
3SS
Explores the evolution of war, weapons technologies, strategies, arms diffusion and arms control efforts and their influences on international violence and concepts of national security. The relationship of weapons development and wars to civilian technological, organizational and political change will also be examined. A series of afternoon public lectures (the Hallock lectures) will be part of the course. Prerequisites: One course in Politics (highly recommended: POLT 120 or POLT 121). Enrollment Limit: 35.
Sem 1 POLT-227-01 MWF 10:00-10:50 Mr. Schiff
228. U.S. Foreign Policy Making 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
229. Globalization Politics 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
230. Politics in the Middle East 3 hours
3SS, CD
Next offered 2002-2003.
Political Theory
231. European Political Theory: Classical to Early Modern 3 hours
3SS
Examines the development of political theory in Europe from its emergence at the time of the Greek city-state until the end of the Medieval period. Major texts are analyzed not only in terms of their internal arguments and concepts, but also in relation to the differing social and political contexts in which each was written. Authors to be studied include Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, and Machiavelli. Enrollment Limit: 30.
Sem 2 POLT-231-01 MWF 10:00-10:50 Mr. Wilson
232. European Political Theory: Hobbes to Marx 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
233. American Political Theory 4 hours
4SS
A critical analysis of the main currents of American political theory from the Puritans to the present, with particular emphasis on the Founding period. Traditional American political
concepts are examined and re-evaluated in the light of late twentieth-century conditions. Some attention is given to the development of an American science of politics and to problems of national and group identity. Each student must attend a discussion section either 1:30 or 2:30 Fridays. This is a core course in Law and Society Program. Enrollment Limit: 45.
Sem 1 POLT-233-01 TuTh 1:30-2:45 Mr. Wilson
234. European Political Theory: After Marx 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
237. Green Political Theory 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
238. Western Marxism and Critical Theory 3 hours
3SS
A close textual reading of works by some twentieth-century thinkers who extend Marxist analysis beyond the confines of Soviet-style "orthodox" Marxism. Issues will include: the relationship between capitalism and culture, capitalism and every day life, Marxism and psychoanalysis, and problems of political organization and agency. Authors will include Lukacs, Gramsci, the Frankfurt School Critical Theorists (Adorno, Horkheimer, Marcuse, Habermas, and others), and such Postwar French thinkers as Lefebvre, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, and Althusser. Prerequisites: One course in Political Theory. Polt 239, Marxist Theory, is strongly recommended. Enrollment Limit: 25.
Sem 2 POLT-238-01 TuTh 11:00-12:15 Ms. Kruks

 

 

back to top

Seminars and Advanced Colloquia

American Politics
300. Seminar: Constitutional Law: Contemporary Constitutional Theory 3 hours
3SS, CD
Next offered 2002-2003.
301. Seminar: Constitutional Law: The First Amendment 3 hours
3SS
Contemporary First Amendment theory and practice. Topics include: First Amendment and the Internet; speech and symbolic action in public forums; hate speech; offensive and pornographic speech; free exercise of religion and separation of church and state; equal protection, speech rights, and sexual orientation; government as speaker: arts grants and social policy; social construction and constitutional change; and balancing, feminist, and absolutist approaches to the First Amendment. Wide choice of paper topic. Prerequisites: POLT 202, 300, 103, or consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 15.
Sem 2 POLT-301-01 M 7:30-9:30 p.m. Mr. Kahn
304. Seminar: Political Psychology 3 hours
3SS
Political psychology is an interdisciplinary field that employs social and cognitive psychological theories to examine the world of politics. Students in this seminar will explore several key approaches to understanding the psychology of political behavior and will examine the psychological origins of citizens' political beliefs and actions from a variety of perspectives. Topics covered include: information processing, inter-group conflict, attribution, blame management, norms and values, heuristics, stereotyping and prejudice, and political communication. Enrollment Limit: 15.
Sem 1 POLT-304-01 W 7:00-9:00 p.m. Ms. Schildkraut
305. Seminar: The Presidency 3 hours
3SS, WR
The study of the American presidency provides an opportunity to examine the nature and interaction of historical, institutional, cultural, and political forces in the acquisition and exercise of political power. Specialized topics vary by year. Prerequisite: two courses in American politics, one of which is POLT 204 or equivalent methodological training. Enrollment Limit: 12.
Sem 2 POLT-305-01 Tu 7:30-9:30 p.m. Mr. Dawson
Comparative Politics
310. Topics in Comparative Politics 3 hours
3SS, WR
How should we study politics in other countries? What tools exist for doing so? Which are most appropriate for studying particular problems? Readings and discussion will focus on the leading approaches, including political economy, political sociology (class, gender and race), institutionalism, culture, and history. Students will apply these tools by writing and presenting a research paper on a topic of their choice. Faculty will present their own research in progress. Enrollment Limit: 15.
Sem 2 POLT-310-01 W 2:30-4:20 Mr. Blecher, Mr. Howell
313. Seminar: Socialist Reform and Crisis in China 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
We analyze the achievements and problems of China's ongoing efforts at structural "reform" away from state socialism and toward capitalistic authoritarianism, sampling the latest studies of political economy (the role of the state in industry, agriculture, commerce and finance), political sociology (inequality, stratification, social problems) and politics (resistance, civil society and democracy). Students will write research papers on a topic of their choice, of which they and the instructor will present and critique drafts. Prerequisites: One course in comparative politics or consent of the instructor. Enrollment Limit: 15.
Sem 1 POLT-313-01 W 2:30-4:20 Mr. Blecher
315. Seminar: Future of Organized Labor 3 hours
3SS
This seminar examines the challenges facing labor movements in advanced capitalist societies today, and the ways in which workers and trade unions are responding to those challenges. The focus of the course is the United States, though it will also look at organized labor in Western Europe. Among the issues explored will be: economic restructuring; new management strategies; political hostility; globalization; and changes in the composition of the working class, particularly the feminization of work. Enrollment Limit: 15.
Sem 2 POLT-315-01 W 8:00-10:00 p.m. Mr. Howell
316. Seminar: Post-Communist Transformations 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
International Politics
321. Seminar: International Politics 3 hours
3SS
Selected issues in international relations. In 2001 the topic includes the historical development, current status and institutions involved in implementing international human rights law, the scope and limits of national sovereignty, and the gap between law and practice. Prerequisites: Politics 120, 121, 123, 202, 225 or 228. Consent of instructor required. Enrollment Limit: 13.
Sem 1 POLT-321-01 W 7:30-9:30 pm Mr. Schiff
323. Seminar: Democratization in the Twenty-First Century 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
Next offered 2002-2003.
Political Theory
334. Seminar: Theories of Justice and Democracy in Contemporary America 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.
339. Seminar: Political Theory and Political Education 3 hours
3SS
This seminar will engage with longstanding debates about the politics of education and the educative functions of politics. Although some attention will be given to older treatments of political education (Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Dewey), the primary focus is on recent and contemporary theory texts. Topics include the process and outcomes of education in a democracy and recent debates about the so-called 'politicization' of education. Writers studied may include Bloom, Gutmann, Freire, Nussbaum, Shapiro, hooks, Giroux. Prerequisite: at least one course in political theory, and consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 12 juniors and seniors.
Sem 2 POLT-339-01 To be arranged Mr. Wilson

 

 

back to top

Honors

403. Senior Honors 2-5 hours
2-5SS
Consent of instructor required.
Sem 1 POLT-403-01 To be arranged Staff
404. Senior Honors 2-5 hours
2-5SS
Consent of instructor required.
Sem 2 POLT-404-01 To be arranged Staff

Practicum
411. Practicum in Policy Evaluation and Applied Research 3 hours
3SS
Next offered 2002-2003.

 

back to top

Oberlin Initiative in Electoral Politics

421. Studies in Electoral Politics 2-3 hours
2-3SS
Research and writing seminar for Cole Scholar students who have been selected to participate in the Oberlin Initiative in Electoral Politics. The seminar will prepare students for their summer internships and familiarize them with the major scholarly and practical literatures concerning campaigns and elections. Consent of instructor required.
Sem 2 POLT-421-01 W 7:30-9:30 p.m. Mr. Kahn, Ms. Schildkraut
422. Projects in Electoral Politics 2-3 hours
2-3SS
An analysis of electoral politics in light of social science theories and field work. Enrollment in this course is limited to Cole Scholars who have completed their summer internships under the auspices of the Oberlin Initiative in Electoral Politics. Consent of instructor required.
Sem 1 POLT-422-01 M 7:30-9:30 p.m. Mr. Kahn, Ms. Schildkraut

 

 

back to top

London Program

900. The Danenberg Lectures on British Culture and Society 2 hours
2 EX
For full course description see section entitled "London Program."
Sem 1 LOND-900-01 To be arranged Ms. Kruks, Mr. Pence
924. Culture and Politics in Post-War Britain 6 hours
6SS
For full course description see section entitled "London Program."
Sem 1 ENGL-924-01 To be arranged Mr. Pence
POLT-924-01 To be arranged Ms. Kruks
926. Political Thought Since the English Civil War: From Absolutist 6 hours
Monarchy to the Welfare State (1600s-1945)
6SS
For full course description see section entitled "London Program."
Sem 1 POLT-926-01 To be arranged Ms. Kruks

 

back to top

Individual Projects

995. Private Reading 1-3 hours
1-3SS
Consent of instructor required. Projects sponsored by Mr. Blecher, Mr. Crowley, Mr. Dawson, Mr. Howell, Mr. Kahn, Ms. Kruks, Ms. Sandberg, Mr. Schiff, Ms. Schildkraut, and Mr. Wilson.

 

Courses Regularly Offered and Next Offered in 2003-2004

203. Congress: Politics and Policy-Making 3-4 hours
3-4SS, WR
221. Third World Political Economies 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
235. European Political Theory: Gender, Women and Politics 3 hours
3SS, CD
239. Marxist Theory 3 hours
3SS, CD, WR
337. From Existentialism to Postmodernism: French Political Theory 3 hours
Since World War II
3SS

 

back to top

copyright

line

comments

email

search

ochome