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The purposes of the biology major are to: (1) teach the fundamental concepts and methods of the biological sciences; (2) engage all students in science as it is practiced by developing their capacities to use and evaluate scientific knowledge; and (3) explore relationships of biology to other sciences and to problems of social, cultural, and intellectual concern.

By proper selection of biology and other science courses in consultation with a departmental advisor, the major in biology can prepare a student for graduate study and research in a wide range of areas including anatomy, biochemistry, bioengineering, biophysics, botany, cell biology, conservation biology, developmental biology, ecology, environmental sciences, immunology, marine biology, microbiology, molecular biology, mycology, physiology, virology, zoology, etc. The major in biology can also lead to a variety of careers in applied biology (medicine and agriculture and their allied fields) and science teaching.

Advanced Placement. Four (4) hours of biology major credit, designated as Biology 605, are automatically granted to students earning 4's and 5's on the Advanced Placement test. Students granted AP credit in biology who intend to major in biology are exempted from taking the introductory sequence (Biology 118, 119, 120) but must still complete the 27-hour minimum for the major, by earning 23 Biology credits in addition to the 4 granted as Biology 605. Students with AP credit may elect, if they so choose, to take either Biology 118 plus 119, or Biology 120, but not both. Students with AP credit must still take at least five laboratory courses.

Entry-Level Course Sequence Suggestions. Students with a strong high-school science background find taking Introductory Biology and Chemistry courses simultaneously in the first year both useful and challenging. Other students benefit greatly from taking only one of these courses during their first semester at Oberlin. Prospective Biology majors are urged to consult with a Biology faculty member during Freshman Advising Period to discuss these options.

Major. The biology major consists of 27 hours minimum in biology. Sixteen of these hours, including nine hours of advanced course work (defined as a biology course numbered 200 or above, except Biology 213/214, which forms part of the core), must be completed at Oberlin. In addition to the 27 hours in biology, additional cognate work is required (see below).

A. Required Courses

1. Core Biology Courses:
Biology 118 (lecture), 119 (lab), Organismal Biology, 4 hours; Biology 120 (lecture and lab) Genetics, Evolution and Ecology, 4 hours; Biology 213 (Cell and Molecular Biology, lecture only), 3 hours. N.B. Many advanced biology courses require Biology 214 (Cell and Molecular Biology, laboratory, 1 hour), so students are strongly advised to enroll in 214 as well as 213. Check the prerequisites for any course you contemplate taking.

2. Biology Laboratory Requirement:

Majors are required to take at least five laboratory courses or courses that include a laboratory. Biology 119 and 120 count as 2 of the 5 required courses. Majors can count one semester of research (Biology 501 or 502) towards the laboratory requirement. Each laboratory course or course that includes a lab counts as a single lab course, regardless of how often the laboratory section meets.

3. Cognate Course Work:

a. Chemistry 101 and 102 (or 103 in lieu of 101 and 102)

b. Chemistry 205

c. Four additional hours selected from the following: Calculus (MATH 131, 132 or 133), Chemistry (CHEM 254), Physics (PHYS 103), Statistics (MATH 113 or 114).

B. Additional Biology Courses. Up to three credit hours of a seminar and up to three credit hours of research, as BIOL 501 or 502, may be counted toward a Biology major. Honors candidates completing two full semesters of research may count up to 4 credit hours toward the major. Work done through Private Reading does not count toward completion of the major.

Other Courses. The following courses (including their laboratory components, when applicable) count toward the biology major:

1. All Neuroscience courses at the 200 and 300 level.

2. Environmental Studies 316 (Systems Ecology) and 340 (Environmental Systems Modeling).

3. Chemistry 374 (Biochemistry).

4. Geology 320 (Paleontology).

Minor. There is no minor offered in Biology.

Honors. Candidates for honors in biology enroll as seniors in Biology 501 and 502, carry out a research project in consultation with a faculty committee, write and defend a thesis based on completed work, and give a required research seminar. Students interested in this program should initiate a discussion of research possibilities with any member of the staff during the junior year. Students are not accepted formally into the honors program until their proposed research is reviewed by the department at the beginning of their first semester of research.

Off-Campus or Summer Study. The Department offers limited scholarships for summer course work at approved field (inland and marine) stations in the United States. Applications for these scholarships are invited early in the Spring Semester; awards are made in May. In general, students planning off-campus study are advised to consult first with their advisor, and then the Chairman to determine acceptability of courses to the major.

Transfer of Credit. Credits in biology earned elsewhere may be applied to the Oberlin biology major with the approval of the department chair, so long as 14 of the 27 hour minimum in biology, including 9 hours of advanced course work (defined above, under 'major'), are completed at Oberlin.

Winter Term. Among the topics for Winter Term projects that members of the Biology department are willing to sponsor are the following: Mr. Allen: projects relying upon genetic, molecular biological, and biophysical techniques to address cell physiological questions. Readings in the physiology of muscle and motile cells. Instruction and readings in Old Icelandic and Old English literature. Ms Bennett: intensive science review; pre-medical internship. Mr. Benzing: the technology of winemaking and viticulture; tropical biology. Mr. Braford: laboratory research in comparative neuroanatomy for students who have had Biology 320; neurobiology; evolution; systematics. Ms Cruz: projects involving comparative embryology, developmental biology, parasitoids, marsupial biology. Readings in the history of biology, philosophy of science, evolution. Ms Garvin: projects and readings in parasitology, entomology, ornithology, epidemiology, and ecology. Mr. Laushman: projects involving conservation biology, population genetics, and aquatic vascular plants. Mr. Levin: compiling and evaluating certain AIDS data for students who have done one course (with laboratory) in microbiology. Mr. Luck: laboratory research involving recombinant DNA technology for students who have had Biology 309. Ms McCormick: projects on the evolution of vertebrate auditory and lateral line systems; topics on the evolution of vertebrate structure. Mr. Miller: holistic health; new age/transformational subjects; psychic healing group project; new paradigms in science; noetic sciences. Ms Thornton: projects involving neuroendocrinology and behavioral neuroendocrinology. Ms Treichel: projects involving immunology, virology, or cancer; health career internships.


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Preparation for Post-Graduate Education

Medical School, Dental and Veterinary Medicine. Most medical, dental, and veterinary schools require:

1. One year of General Biology with laboratory.

2. Two years of Chemistry with laboratory.

3. One year of Mathematics.

4. One year of Physics with laboratory.

5. One year of English.

Students planning careers in medicine should consult the Health Career Advisors, the Office of Career Services, and references in the Science Library for details.

Graduate Schools. Most graduate schools in biology expect a major in the biological sciences to include:

1. Two years of Chemistry with laboratory.

2. One year of Physics with laboratory.

3. College-level Mathematics (Calculus and Statistics).

4. Courses in Computer Science.

Certain deficiencies in course work may be made up in graduate school but generally not for graduate credit. Students planning to pursue an advanced degree should consult individual admission requirements of the schools and graduate departments in which they are interested. The qualifying examination for most graduate schools is the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) which consists of two parts, the general examination and an advanced component in biology. The majority of graduate schools require the General Examination for admission and there is variation with respect to the advanced examination in biology. Students are strongly urged to consult with members of the Biology Department in preparing for graduate work.

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Courses Primarily for Nonmajors

013. Colloquium: Sexually Transmitted Diseases: 1.5 hours
Biology, History and Misery

1.5NS, WR

Open to students in any class, but for full course description see section entitled "Colloquia for First- and Second-Year Students." Permission of the instructor required for admission.

Sem 1 BIOL-013-01 W 7:30-10:00 p.m. Mr. Levin MODULE 1

BIOL-013-02 W 7:30-10:00 p.m. Mr. Levin MODULE 2

101. Topics in Human Biology 4 hours

The focus will be on various aspects of health and disease in humans. Topics will include certain bodily functions and attributes of healthy humans and how these may be disrupted by genetic and infectious disease and hormonal disorders. Although major emphasis is not on anatomy or physiology, selected systems (i.e., endocrines and the immune system) will be discussed in the context of gender issues, reproduction, immunity, and cancer. Ethical, legal, and economic implications of scientific advances will also be considered. Notes: Two hours of credit may be applied toward the Biology major. Note: Please sign up for both BIOL 101-01 and one of the four lab sections.

Sem 2 BIOL-101-01 MWF 9:00-9:50 Mr. Levin Limit: 64

BIOL-101-02 W 1:20-2:50 Mr. Levin Limit: 16
BIOL-101-03 W 3:00-4:20 Mr. Levin Limit: 16
BIOL-101-04 Th 1:20-2:50 Mr. Levin Limit: 16
BIOL-101-05 Th 3:00-4:20 Mr. Levin Limit: 16

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Introductory Courses for Nonmajors and Prospective Majors

115. Field Botany 2 hours

A study of vegetation emphasizing vascular plants as they occur in Northern Ohio. Identification of species and types of plant communities and selected aspects of natural history will be emphasized. Prerequisites: BIOL 118, 119, or consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 15.

Sem 1 BIOL-115-01 TuTh 9:00-9:50 Mr. Benzing MODULE 1

TuTh 1:30-4:20

118. Organismal Biology (Lecture only) 3 hours

This course provides prospective biology majors and others with an integrated introduction to the organismal biology of animals and plants, from the subcellular level, up through the cellular, tissue, organ, and whole organismal level. Enrollment Limit: 240. Priority will be given to first- and second-year students.

Sem 1 BIOL-118-01 MWF 8:00-8:50 Ms. Cruz, Mr. Miller

119. Organismal Biology (Laboratory only) 1 hour

Laboratory exercises will emphasize anatomical and physiological studies of higher vertebrate and flowering plant whole organisms. Preserved animals are dissected in some laboratories. Some exercises and discussions are designed to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in data analysis and interpretation. Enrollment Limit: 24. Students must be concurrently enrolled in or have already had BIOL 118. Priority will be given to first- and second-year students.
Sem 1 BIOL-119-01 Tu 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett
BIOL-119-02 Tu 1:30-4:20 Mr. Miller
BIOL-119-03 W 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett
BIOL-119-04 W 1:30-4:20 Staff
BIOL-119-05 Th 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett
BIOL-119-06 Th 1:30-4:20 Staff
BIOL-119-07 F 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett
BIOL-119-08 F 1:30-4:20 Mr. Miller

120. Genetics, Evolution and Ecology 4 hours

This course provides prospective biology majors and others with an integrated introduction to key biological principles of genetics, ecology, and evolution. The labs feature exercises and discussions designed to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in data analysis and interpretation. Preserved animals are dissected in some laboratories. Priority will be given to first- and second-year students.

Sem 2 BIOL-120-01 MWF 10:00-10:50 Ms. Garvin, Mr. Laushman Limit: 192

BIOL-120-02 Tu 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett Limit: 24
BIOL-120-03 Tu 1:30-4:20 Mr. Laushman Limit: 24
BIOL-120-04 W 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett Limit: 24
BIOL-120-05 W 1:30-4:20 Ms. Garvin Limit: 24
BIOL-120-06 Th 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett Limit: 24
BIOL-120-07 Th 1:30-4:20 Ms. Garvin Limit: 24
BIOL-120-08 F 1:30-4:20 Ms. Bennett Limit: 24
BIOL-120-09 F 1:30-4:20 Mr. Laushman Limit: 24


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Intermediate and Advanced Courses

201. Invertebrate Biology 4 hours

Next offered Fall 2002.

203. Vertebrate Structure and Evolution 5 hours


A study of vertebrate structure from evolutionary and functional perspectives. This topic is introduced by a discussion of the origin of vertebrates and their phylogeny and basic embryology. The morphological differences in each major organ system are studied primarily in terms of phylogenetic history and functional adaptation. All students must participate fully in the anatomical laboratory exercises. Prerequisites: BIOL 119 or consent of instructor. BIOL 120 recommended. Enrollment Limit: 20.

Sem 2 BIOL-203-01 TuTh 11:00-12:15 Ms. McCormick

TuTh 1:30-4:20

204. Plant Biology 4 hours

3, 5NS

An introduction to the anatomy, development, and physiology of plants with emphasis on flowering plants. Lectures and laboratories will highlight fundamentals of plant structure and function including adaptive features for life in specific types of environments. Labs will meet seven times over the course of the semester, schedule to be distributed during the first week of classes. Prerequisites: BIOL 118, 119, 120, or consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 16.

Sem 2 BIOL-204-01 MWF 10:00-10:50 Mr. Benzing, Mr. Miller

W 1:30-4:20

205. Community Ecology 4 hours


This course will be taught by a new faculty member. Please see the supplement to the course catalog for a full description. Prerequisites: BIOL 120 or consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 24.

Sem 2 BIOL-205-01 To be arranged Staff

206. Population Ecology 4 hours

4NS, QPh, WR

Next offered fall 2002.

207. The Fungi 3 hours


A study of the major groups of the fungi. Lectures and laboratory will deal with the ecological and economic importance, the life cycles, and evolutionary relationships of the fungi. Laboratories will emphasize the collection and identification of local edible and poisonous species of mushrooms with field trips during the first half of the semester. Smaller, less well-known fungi will be studied during the second half of the semester. Prerequisities: BIOL 118, 119, and 120 or permission of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 16
Sem 1 BIOL-207-01 TuTh 10:00-10:50 Mr. Miller
Th 1:30-4:30

208. Vascular Plant Diversity 2 hours

A study of the structure, life cycles, and evolutionary relationships of the major groups of vascular plants. Prerequisites: BIOL 118, 119, or consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 16
Sem 1 BIOL-208-01 TuTh 9:00-9:50 Mr. Benzing MODULE 2
TuTh 1:30-4:30

211. Genetics 3 hours

The principles of heredity: an examination of the genetics of plants, animals, bacteria, and viruses. Topics include concepts of dominance, gamete formation, epistasis, penetrance, mutation, and linkage. Microbial genetics will be treated extensively. Probability will be discussed, as will human genetics, genetic screening and counselling, and issues raised by genetic advance. Prerequisites: BIOL 120 or permission of instructor.
Sem 1 BIOL-211-01 TuTh 11:00-12:15 Mr. Levin

213. Cell and Molecular Biology (Lecture only) 3 hours

A detailed study of cell structure and function at the molecular level. Topics to be discussed include structure and function of membranes and cell organelles; gene structure, function and regulation; bioenergetics; cell cycle control, signal transduction and genetic engineering. The intent of the course is to integrate molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology in order to provide a firm foundation for many of the more specialized courses in the major. Prerequisites: BIOL 118, 119, or 120, and CHEM 102 or 103. Not recommended for first-year students.
Sem 1 BIOL-213-01 MWF 11:00-11:50 Mr. Luck, Ms. Treichel

214. Cell and Molecular Biology (Laboratory only) 1 hour

Laboratory exercises are designed to illustrate processes central to cell and molecular biology and to familiarize students with basic skills required at the laboratory bench. Co-requisite: BIOL 213. Enrollment Limit: 20.
Sem 1 BIOL-214-01 M 1:30-4:20 Mr. Luck
BIOL-214-02 Tu 1:30-4:20 Ms.Treichel
BIOL-214-03 W 1:30-4:20 Mr. Luck
BIOL-214-04 Th 1:30-4:20 Ms.Treichel
BIOL-214-05 F 1:30-4:20 Ms. Thornton

302. Developmental Biology 5 hours

A survey of the developmental processes which occur during the life of a multicellular organism (mostly metazoa, but also certain plants and protists). Lectures focus on the cellular and molecular aspects of such phenomena as differentiation, pattern formation, morphogenesis, and senescence; and draw attention to the evolutionary underpinnings of these processes. The laboratory exercises consist of experiments designed to demonstrate fundamental concepts in development and to familiarize students with experimental approaches to embryological investigations. Live and preserved animals are used in most of the laboratory exercises. Prerequisites: BIOL 118, 119 and 214; consent of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 20.

Sem 2 BIOL-302-01 MWF 8:00-8:50 Ms. Cruz

MW 1:30-4:20

303. Microbiology 4 hours


The biology of microorganisms, with major emphasis on bacteria. Both medical and non-medical topics are covered, as are basic principles of microbial genetics, virology, and immunology. Prerequisites: BIOL 214 and CHEM 205. Enrollment Limit: 16.

Sem 2 BIOL-303-01 TuTh 1:00-4:20 Mr. Levin

308. Genes and Genetic Engineering (Lecture only) 3 hours


A lecture course on the chemical, physical and biological properties of nucleic acids, with emphasis on current topics related to the organization, replication, transcription, translation, regulation, and manipulation of genetic material. Prerequisites: BIOL 213 and CHEM 205.

Sem 2 BIOL-308-01 MWF 9:00-9:50 Mr. Luck

309. Genes and Genetic Engineering (Lecture and Laboratory) 4 hours


Identical to BIOL 308 but with the addition of one laboratory per week. Laboratories will emphasize techniques used in working with nucleic acids. Prerequisites: BIOL 214 and CHEM 205.

Sem 2 BIOL-309-01 MWF 9:00-9:50 Mr. Luck Limit: 24


BIOL-309-02 M 1:30-4:20 Mr. Luck Limit: 12

BIOL-309-03 Tu 1:30-4:20 Mr. Luck Limit: 12

312. Animal Physiology 4 hours


This course concerns the function of the body from the molecular level (e.g., the generation of electrical signals in the nervous system) to the organismal level (e.g., adaptations to pregnancy or exercise). Classes and laboratory sessions examine the physiology of the following: excitable cells (e.g., nerves and muscles); the heart and cardiovascular system; the lungs and respiratory system; the kidneys and body fluid homeostasis; and reproduction. Prerequisite: BIOL 213 or permission of instructor.

Sem 1 BIOL-312-01 MWF 9:00-9:50 Mr. Allen Limit: 28


BIOL-312-02 M 1:30-4:20 Mr. Allen Limit: 16

BIOL-312-03 Tu 1:30-4:20 Mr. Allen Limit: 16

313. The Living Cell 3 hours


Addressing the foremost questions in cell biology, this course explores the following: how cells obtain and alter their shape (e.g., during cell division or cell death); how intracellular motility (e.g., shuttling of vesicles, organelles, and chromosomes) arises; how cells adhere and migrate (e.g., during immune responses, embryonic development, or cancer); and how these various activities are signaled and orchestrated. Particular attention is given to the cell biological basis of problems in neurobiology, immunology, developmental biology, and disease. Involves two class meetings and one small-group tutorial, at which research literature is discussed and analyzed, per week. The tutorial generally replaces Friday's class and is scheduled informally. Prerequisite: BIOL 213 or permission of instructor. Enrollment Limit: 24.

Sem 2 BIOL-313-01 MWF 11:00-11:50 Mr. Allen

314. Cell Biological Research 3 hours


The heart of this course is an individual or small-group research project lasting the entire semester and relating to cell motility. Through the project, students will gain mastery of one or more of the following techniques: site-directed mutagenesis; classical genetic screens for mutants and revertants; bacterial expression and purification of eukaryotic proteins; biochemical and biophysical analyses of protein function; advanced light microscopy (e.g., with polarizing, fluorescence, or differential interference contrast optics). Additionally, students will examine the design and execution of research (from inception of idea to communication of results). Laboratory work, amounting to 6-8 hours/week, is scheduled informally. Prerequisite: BIOL 214 or equivalent. Consent of instructor required. Enrollment Limit: 12.
Sem 2 BIOL-314-01 W 7:00-7:50 p.m. Mr. Allen

318. Evolution 4 hours

4NS, QPh
Principles of microevolution (selection, gene flow, mutation, genetic drift, and factors that influence population genetic structure), evolutionary ecology (competition and predation, and abiotic factors) and macroevolution (changes above the species level) will be studied. Special attention will be given to how these subjects are related, and how they are fundamental to understanding organic evolution. Prerequisites: BIOL 118, 119, 120, and 213. Enrollment Limit: 28.
Sem 1 BIOL-318-01 MWF 10:00-10:50 Mr. Laushman Limit: 14
M 1:30-4:20
BIOL-318-02 MWF 10:00-10:50 Mr. Laushman Limit: 14
T 1:30-4:20

326. Vascular Plant Systematics 4 hours

A study of flowering plant biology. Lectures will concentrate on plants at the population level. Topics include: angiosperm diversity, plant speciation, pollination biology, and reproductive strategies. Laboratories during the first several weeks of the semester acquaint students with methods of plant identification. Laboratories during the second half of the course will be devoted to field trips designed to acquaint students with the local spring flora together with ecological principles important to higher plants. Prerequisites: BIOL 118, 119, and BIOL 120, or consent of the instructor. BIOL 204 recommended. Enrollment Limit: 24.
Sem 2 BIOL-326-01 TuTh 9:00-9:50 Mr. Benzing
TuTh 1:30-4:20

327. Immunology 3 hours

A comprehensive introduction to our current understanding of the immune system, including innate, humoral, and cell- mediated components. Emphasis is placed on the molecular and cellular events underlying immunity. Lectures, discussions, and problem sets present the important experimental techniques currently used by immunologists. Discussion of current applications (e.g., vaccination) and challenges (e.g., autoimmune disease, AIDS) illustrate the link between basic research and clinical immunology and reveal social and political aspects of biomedical research. Prerequsites: BIOL 118, BIOL 120 and BIOL 213. Enrollment Limit: 25. Preference to juniors and seniors.
Sem 2 BIOL-327-01 TuTh 11-12:15 Ms. Treichel

328. Immunology Laboratory 1.5 hours

The laboratory introduces students to techniques for detecting the reaction between antigens and antibodies and for isolating and characterizing cells of the immune system. Cell-culturing techniques are taught. Much of the course utilizes a research approach consisting of a series of semi-independent experiments: these include culturing hybridomas, isolating, purifying, and quantifying monoclonal antibodies, and determining their various functional characteristics. Most experiments will require one to two hours outside the regularly scheduled laboratory meetings. Prerequisites: BIOL 214 and concurrent enrollment in BIOL 327. Enrollment Limit: 10.
Sem 2 BIOL-328-01 Tu 1:30-4:20 Ms. Treichel

329. Virology 3 hours

Next offered Spring 2003.

333. Laboratory in Mammalian Cell Culture 2-3 hours


Next offered Spring 2003.

411. Seminar: Conservation Biology 3 hours


A discussion format is used to study important biological concepts pertaining to the conservation and management of natural animal and plant populations. Papers from the current primary literature are used to cover topics such as founder effect, inbreeding, genetic drift, and habitat fragmentation. Genetic and life history variation, species diversity, and community ecology are examined in relation to habitat conservation. Students alternate as discussion leaders; term papers and oral presentations required of all students. Prerequisites: BIOL 120. Consent of instructor required. Enrollment Limit: 12. Preference to juniors and seniors.

Sem 2 BIOL-411-01 W 7:30-10:00 p.m. Mr. Laushman

414. Seminar: Reporting in the Biological Sciences 2 hours


This course is primarily intended to serve students wishing to improve their skills as authors and editors of biological information. Prerequisites: Two courses in biological science. Enrollment Limit: 6.

Sem 1 BIOL-414-01 Tu 7:00-9:00 p.m. Mr. Benzing

Independent Work

501, 502. Research 1-3 hours


Projects for original investigation are developed by students in consultation with a faculty member. Students in the Honors Program enroll for both semesters of their senior year. A maximum of three credit hours (four hours for Honors students completing two semesters of research) and one laboratory unit may be earned in this course towards the requirements for a biology major. Research sponsored by Mr. Allen, Mr. Benzing, Mr. Braford, Ms. Cruz, Ms. Garvin, Mr. Laushman, Mr. Levin, Mr. Luck, Ms. McCormick, Mr. Miller, Ms. Thornton, Ms. Treichel. Consent of instructor required.

995. Private Reading 1-3 hours


Independent study of a subject arranged by student with member of Biology teaching staff, who supervises the project. Only subjects beyond the range of catalog course offerings permitted. Special approvals required from: project supervisor, student's academic advisor, and department chairman. Note: A student is limited to one private reading course per semester. Private Reading sponsored by Mr. Allen, Ms. Bennett, Mr. Benzing, Mr. Braford, Ms. Cruz, Ms. Garvin, Mr. Laushman, Mr. Levin, Mr. Luck, Ms. McCormick, Mr. Miller, Ms. Thornton, Ms. Treichel. Consent of instructor required.

A major in Biochemistry is offered in the Chemistry Department. Biochemistry major requirements are described in the Chemistry section of this catalog.

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