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RG 30/307 - Herbert Shore Collection in Honor of Eduardo C. Mondlane
Scope and Content

The Herbert Shore Collection in Honor of Eduardo Mondlane is comprised of two subgroups. Subgroup I is Historical Files Relating to Herbert Shore’s Interests in the Arts and Culture. The bulk of this subgroup consists of files relating to the Council on The Arts, Culture, and Technology (TACT) of which Shore was the director from 1974 to 1988. Additional material in this subgroup concerns the performing arts, and includes playscripts, photographs, and audio and video recordings.

Subgroup II is Historical Files Collected by Shore on Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique, and Africa. The materials in this subgroup include biographical material on Eduardo and Janet Mondlane, writings by Eduardo Mondlane and others, subject files, and microfilm of original documents relating to the Mondlanes and Mozambique. This subgroup also contains non-textual material in the form of photographs, audio recordings, artwork, and museum items.

Although Herbert Shore as a writer and educator worked in the performing arts, he was also interested and involved in cultural issues. The files in Subgroup I reflect both of these areas of Shore’s work, though they emphasize his involvement with cultural issues. The materials in Subgroup I illustrate the connections between these two areas, as is seen in the files on theatrical plays that focus on cultural issues.

Herbert Shore’s involvement in the performing arts is illustrated by Subgroup I, Series 2. Theatrical Files. There are a number of playscripts, some of which include staging notes. Among these is one play by Shore titled Not with Our Fathers: a Fable for Our Time, Out of History, but Not an Historical Play. Also documented here is a 1964 production of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar performed at St. Francis’ College in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In 1981, Shore took part in a symposium on Friedrich Dürrenmatt’s plays, which was held at the University of Southern California; a program from the symposium is the only documentation of his participation. Series 3 contains reel to reel recordings of music, including several pieces from Alvin Ailey dances. This series also includes cassette recordings of excerpts from Brecht and a memorial of composer Ernst Toch.

From 1974 to 1988 Shore served as director of the Council on The Arts, Culture, and Technology (TACT), a consortium of institutions, organizations, and programs involved in interdisciplinary research and related activities. Shore's TACT files document both its early period as an activity of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO and its later activities as an independent non-governmental organization. The files include reports and correspondence on various projects with which TACT was involved, as well as correspondence with the U.S. National Commission and its delegates to UNESCO. The projects documented here include a 1980 conference on “Art in a Technological Society” and a proposed Regional Resource Center on Southern Africa.

Additional material on culture and the arts is found in Series 3. Recordings and in Series 4. Photographs. Among the photographs are pictures of traditional crafts in New Mexico and of a Haussa village in Africa. The recordings include audiotapes about Nicaraguan culture as well as recordings of traditional music of the United States.

Although Shore’s activities as director of TACT were primarily U.S.-based, he had a longtime interest in African culture. His most extensive work in this area was concerned with Eduardo Mondlane and the Mozambican liberation movement. Shore's TACT files include material on an extensive project (1978-1981) concerning Mondlane. This project had two key components. The first was to research Mondlane’s life and write a biography. Following Mondlane’s death, Shore was asked by Janet Mondlane and FRELIMO leaders to collect materials about the slain freedom fighter. With a grant from the Ford Foundation, Shore planned to put together a biography of Mondlane, basing his research on this collection. By the end of the grant period, Shore had completed a draft of the biography. Although this draft is not in these files, the project report includes an outline of the proposed biography. Shore’s biography of Eduardo Mondlane does not appear to have been completed.

The biographical research project brought to light the need to preserve the valuable material that Shore had collected. The second part of the project developed into a project to microfilm Shore’s collection on Eduardo Mondlane. The Cooperative Africana Microform Project (CAMP) at Northwestern University microfilmed some 2000 pieces of correspondence, primarily between Eduardo and Janet Mondlane from 1952-1962. This microfilm is not included in this collection, and the original documents were returned to Janet Mondlane once the microfilm was completed. The project files found here include correspondence and an inventory of the material microfilmed by CAMP. Although it was originally intended for CAMP to microfilm all of the Shore Collection, only these letters were done. The remainder of the collection was microfilmed at the University of Southern California in 1996. This microfilm and related files are in Subgroup II.

Subgroup II consists of the material collected by Herbert Shore relating to Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique, and Africa. The most significant resource on Eduardo Mondlane in this subgroup is the microfilm in Series 6. This set of microfilm, done in 1996, contains correspondence (primarily post 1962) and writings of Janet and Eduardo Mondlane. Also included is material (1950-1989) including correspondence, publications, and interviews concerning the Mondlanes, FRELIMO, and the Mozambique Institute. Correspondents include George Houser, Herbert Shore, Africa Today editor Edward A. Hawley (who studied at the Oberlin Graduate School of Theology), Oberlin Professor George Simpson, and FRELIMO leaders Uria Simango and Marcellino Dos Santos. Each of the seven microfilm reels includes an inventory of its contents, and paper copies of the inventory are also in this series. Administrative files for this project are found in Series 3. Subject Files, under Mondlane/Mozambique Archive Project.

The originals of the documents that are found on the microfilm in Series 6 were deposited in the Archivo Historico in Maputo, Mozambique. The documents in Subgroup II include materials that were not part of the collection when it was microfilmed as well as duplicate copies of some documents (primarily articles) which were microfilmed. The typescript copies of selected correspondence related to Eduardo and Janet Mondlane which comprise Series 2 appear to be transcriptions of correspondence included on the microfilm, although it has not been ascertained that all of these letters are indeed found on the microfilm. With this correspondence is a typescript copy of a daily journal kept by the Mondlanes during a visit to Dar es Salaam, c. 1962.

Biographical information about the Mondlanes is found in Series 1, as well as on the microfilm in Series 6. Most of the biographical files in Series 1 concern Eduardo Mondlane. These include a brief autobiographical account written by Mondlane in 1966 as well as correspondence and newspaper clippings about Mondlane, 1953, 1963-1969. These files also contain newspaper clippings about his 1969 assassination and written accounts of the funeral service in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and the United Nations memorial service in New York, as well as programs from the memorial service. The biographical files also contain selected quotations of Eduardo Mondlane, 1967-1968. The biographical information on Janet Mondlane includes a transcript of an interview with her and newspaper clippings.

Material on Mozambique, including the Mozambican liberation movement’s political and educational organizations and Portugal’s relationship with Mozambique, is located in Series 3. Subject Files. These subject files contain some material that is duplicated by the microfilm in Series 6, as well as additional material that was not microfilmed. The subject files also contain administrative files about the 1996 microfilm project, including an index card inventory of the microfilmed collection.

The subject files on FRELIMO the Mozambique Liberation Front include general materials (including some in Portuguese), 1969 newsletters, other FRELIMO publications, and a 1970 profile of FRELIMO. Of note is a report on FRELIMO’s Second Congress held in 1968; this report includes a summary of FRELIMO’s activities during its first six years as well as resolutions outlining the liberation movement’s goals. The Mozambique Institute was founded in 1963 to carry out FRELIMO’s educational mission. The subject file on the Institute includes reports, newspaper clippings, and an informational pamphlet describing its history and work.

The files on Mozambique and Portugal are not as extensive. The Mozambique subject files include issues of the newspaper Noticias (in Portuguese) from July 25, 1975 (the day of Mozambican independence) and July 27, 1975. The material on Portugal focuses on Portugal’s colonial relationship with Mozambique and includes a 1976 report “Portugal in Mozambique” as well as newspaper clippings (1963-1976).

A significant portion of Subgroup II is made up of writings by Eduardo Mondlane and by others. Eduardo Mondlane’s writings (1952-1969 and undated) focus on race and cultural issues, primarily in Africa. Many of these articles discuss Mozambique and the liberation movement, and they include typescript copies and photocopies as well as a few typescript drafts. Among these drafts is an introduction to Andre Clerc’s Chitlangou, Son of a Chief. This book is a fictionalized account based on Mondlane’s childhood experiences. There is no material here on Mondlane’s work The Struggle for Mozambique (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969).

Many of the articles in Subseries 2. Writings by Others are about Eduardo Mondlane. Other writings focus on Mozambique as well as other parts of Africa (including Malawi and Ethiopia). This subseries also includes “Africa in the Modern World,” a transcript of a 1952 radio discussion in which Mondlane participated. These writings also include interviews with Mondlane (1965 and undated). The article “A Long War Ahead” by Mondlane and William Minter is included in Southern Africa: a Time for Change, edited by G. Daniels. (A photocopy of the same article when it was published in Report of the Special Study Mission to Southern Africa, edited by Charles Diggs, Jr., is found with Mondlane’s writings in Subseries 1.)

Subgroup II is focused primarily on Eduardo Mondlane and Mozambique, but some of the material in this subgroup is related to other parts of Southern Africa, including Tanzania and South Africa. Writings such as the pamphlet “Armed Struggle in Southern Africa” from the Africa Research Group discuss the political situation throughout Southern Africa as a whole during the period in which Mozambicans were fighting for independence. Additional material related to other areas of Africa are in the audio recordings in Series 7., which includes recordings of African music and theater, and in Series 9. Artwork and museum items. The Artwork and museum items include drawings and paintings by Africans, as well as museum items such as a ballot from the 1994 South African Elections and a horsehair fly whisk from an unidentified African tribe.

The collection is arranged as follows:

Subgroup I.  Historical Files relating to Herbert Shore’s interests in the Arts and Culture

Series 1.  Council on the Arts, Culture, and Technology (TACT),  1962-63, 1971-1984, 1991, n.d. (1 oversize drawing)

Series 2.  Theatrical Files, 1964, 1969-1970, 1981, 1987, n.d.

Series 3.  Recordings (audio and video), 1976, 1987, 1994, n.d.

            Subseries 1.  Cassette Tapes, 1976, 1987, 1994, n.d.

            Subseries 2.  Reel to Reel tapes, n.d.

Series 4.  Photographs, 1966, ca. 1980, n.d.

Subgroup II.  Historical Files collected by Shore on Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique, and Africa

Series 1.  Biographical Files,1950s-2003, n.d.

Series 2.  Selected Correspondence by and about Eduardo and Janet Mondlane (typescripts), 1933-85, n.d. 

Series 3.  Subject Files, 1958-79, 1988, 1990, 1996-97, n.d.

Series 4.  Writings, 1952-96, n.d.

Subseries 1.  Writings by Eduardo Mondlane, 1952-68, n.d.

Subseries 2.  Writings by Herbert Shore, 1973, 1975, 1982, 1996, n.d.

Subseries 3.  Writings by others, 1952-98, n.d.

Series 5.  Shore’s research notes and interviews, 1950s-1990s, n.d.

Series 6.  Mondlane/Mozambique Archive (on microfilm), 1949-91, n.d.

Series 7.  Recordings (audio), 1965-97, n.d.

Subseries 1.  Cassette Tapes, 1976, 1978-1979, 1986, 1995-97, n.d.

Subseries 2.  Reel to Reel Tapes, 1969-1970, n.d.

Subseries 3. VHS Tapes, 1988-89, n.d.

Subseries 4. Phonograph Recordings, 1965, n.d.

Subseries 5. CD-ROM, n.d.

Series 8.  Photographs,  1953-54, 1965, 1969, 1973, 1995-97, c. 2001, n.d.

Series 9.  Artwork and museum items, 1952-53, c. 1975, 1992, 1994, n.d.

Series Descriptions

Subgroup I. Historical Files relating to Herbert Shore’s interests in the Arts and Culture

Series 1. Council on the Arts, Culture, and Technology (TACT), 1962-63, 1971-1986, 1991, n.d. (2.05 l.f.; 126 folders, 1 oversize drawing)

These files, arranged alphabetically, include reports and correspondence on projects sponsored by TACT, as well as background articles and reports about technology and culture. Also found in these files is correspondence (1974-1982) with the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO. Among the project files is a 1978-1980 project to write a biography of Eduardo Mondlane; more extensive information on Mondlane is in Subgroup II. There is also correspondence and an architectural drawing for a proposed Space Theater for Dance, and photographs of the model dance dome for the theater are in Series 4. Photographs.

Series 2. Theatrical Files, 1964, 1969-1970, 1981, 1987, n.d. (0.4 l.f.; 12 folders)

Scripts, programs, and related material for miscellaneous plays, as well as a program from a 1980 symposium on playwright Friedrich Dürrenmatt’s works and an article by Kenneth Rea on “Search for the Inner Life of the Actor.” Plays represented in these files include Herbert Shore’s Not with our Fathers: a Fable for our time, out of history, but not an historical play. Filed with material from a 1964 production of Julius Caesar at St. Francis’ College in Tanzania are brochures and invitations from art exhibitions (1962-1963, n.d.) in Nigeria.

Series 3. Recordings (audio), 1976, 1987, 1994, n.d. (1.2 l.f.; 31 reels, 10 tapes)

These cassette tapes and reel to reel recordings include programs on cultural issues and traditional music as well as recordings of Alvin Ailey dance music and memorials of composer Ernst Toch and artist and activist Paul Robeson.

Series 4. Photographs, 1966, c. 1980, n.d. (0.2 l.f.; 27 photographs)

The 27 photographs in this series include mostly undated b/w photographs of a variety of subjects, including New Mexico traditional crafts, an unidentified museum, scenes from a play and a variety show (1966), and a Haussa Village in Africa. The only color photograph is of an undated picture of a sex education class in an unidentified location. There are also five b/w photographs of a model of the dance dome for the proposed Martha Graham Space Theater for Dance. Correspondence and an architectural drawing for the Space Theater are in the TACT files in Series 1.

Subgroup II. Historical Files collected by Shore on Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique, and Africa

Series 1. Biographical Files, 1950s-2003, n.d. (1.0 l.f.; 32 folders)

This series contains biographical material on Eduardo and Janet Mondlane. The material on Eduardo Mondlane includes numerous articles about his 1969 assassination, as well as programs from memorial services and a brief autobiographical summary written by Mondlane in 1966. The material on Janet Mondlane includes a transcript of an undated interview and newspaper clippings.

Series 2. Selected Correspondence by and about Eduardo and Janet Mondlane (typescripts, transcriptions, photocopies, handwritten,), 1933-85, n.d. (0.6 l.f.; 33 folders)

These are typescript copies of correspondence written by Eduardo and Janet Mondlane as well as correspondence about the Mondlanes by various individuals, including George Houser of the American Committee on Africa. They appear to be transcriptions from correspondence on the microfilm in Series 6. Attached to the correspondence in the last folder is a typescript copy of a daily journal from a visit the Mondlanes made to Dar es Salaam (c. 1962).

Series 3. Subject Files, 1958-79, 1988, 1990, 1996-97, n.d. (0.4 l.f.; 29 folders, oversize newspapers)

This series contains material about the Mozambican liberation movement and files on the 1996 project to microfilm the Herbert Shore’s collection on Mondlane and Mozambique. The files on liberation movement cover Mozambique generally and the country’s colonial relationship with Portugal, as well as FRELIMO (the Mozambique Liberation Front) and the Mozambique Institute.

Series 4. Writings, 1952-1996, n.d. (1.6 l.f.; 80 folders)

The writings are arranged in three subseries: 1. Writings by Eduardo Mondlane, 2. Writings by Herbert Shore, and 3. Writings by Others. The writings byEduardo Mondlane discuss Mozambique and the liberation movement, as well as race and cultural issues in other areas (primarily African). There are photocopies and typescript copies of Mondlane’s articles; there are also a few typescript drafts. Among these drafts are two drafts of an introduction to Andre Clerc’s Chitlangou, Son of a Chief, which was based on Mondlane’s childhood experiences in Mozambique. The writings by Herbert Shore consist of Shore's writings about Eduardo Mondlane, Africa and Apartheid. Also included are materials relating to Shore's work on a biography of Eduardo Mondlane. Most of the Writings by Others are about Mozambique and Eduardo Mondlane. There are also pieces about other parts of Africa, including Malawi and Ethiopia.

Series 5. Shore’s research notes, 1950s-90s, n.d. (1.2 l.f.; 21 folders, index cards)

These include notes from interviews with Mia Adjali of the United Methodist Women’s Division and with Margaret and Colin Legum. These interviews discuss Eduardo Mondlane. This series also contains a transcription of a tape recording in which George Houser recorded his observations during an October 1975 trip to Africa; most of his remarks concern Mozambique which had been granted independence earlier that year

Series 6. Mondlane/Mozambique Archive (on microfilm), 1949-1991, n.d. (0.6 l.f.; 2 folders, 8 reels of microfilm)

This microfilm contains Herbert Shore’s collection of material documenting Eduardo Mondlane, the Mozambican liberation struggle, and developments in Mozambique since it became independent in 1975. Approximately 4000 items were microfilmed, including correspondence of Eduardo and Janet Mondlane and others, writings by and about the Mondlanes, and articles and other materials collected by Eduardo Mondlane. Most of this material is in English, but there are also items in Portuguese and French. A number of letters that are in Portuguese have English translations. There are eight rolls of microfilm. Rolls 1 and 2 contain material from Eduardo Mondlane (1950-1970, n.d.), including, writings and addresses, interviews, and correspondence. Roll 3 contains material from Janet Mondlane (1951-1991, n.d.), consisting primarily of correspondence but also including a few writings and interviews. Also on Roll 3 is material on the Mozambique Institute (1963-1974, n.d.), including correspondence, reports, proposals, and photographs. Reels 4, 5, and 6 contain materials about the Mondlanes and their work in Mozambique. These include articles (1949-1989, n.d.), correspondence (1950-1989, n.d.) from individuals who knew Eduardo Mondlane or had an interest in Mozambique, Shore’s research notes (1963-1986, n.d.), and memorials and tributes to Eduardo Mondlane (1969-1978, n.d.). Roll 7 contains FRELIMO publications (1963-1975, n.d.) and petitions and statements (1962-1974, n.d.) made by Eduardo Mondlane and other FRELIMO leaders to the United Nations. Each microfilm reel includes an inventory of its contents, and paper copies of these inventories have been made to facilitate use. Copies of some of the material included on the microfilm may be found in Series 1-5. Roll 8 contains an inventory of the contents of the rolls 1-7, arranged alphabetically by category. For on-site reference use only.

Series 7. Recordings (audio and video) 1965, 1969-70, 1976, 1978-79, 1986, 1988-89, 1995-97, n.d. (2.0 l.f.)

This series is divided into five subseries: Cassette Tapes, Reel to Reel Recordings, VHS Tapes, Phonograph Recordings and CD-ROM. The recordings in the first three subseries are primarily concerned with Mozambique, though there are also recordings on South Africa and Tanzania.  They include interviews with Janet Mondlane, Africa Today editor George Houser, FRELIMO president Samora Moises Machel, Peter and Cora Weiss, and others discussing Eduardo Mondlane and Mozambique.  The reel to reel recordings include a 1970 speech by FRELIMO leader Marcellino Dos Santos and the United Nations memorial service for Eduardo Mondlane, held in New York in February 1969.  There are also recordings of Swahili and of African music and theater.  The video recordings portray life in Africa (probably Mozambique) and tell the story of the Mozambican independence struggle. The fourth subseries consists of two phonograph recordings of African music, noted to be personal favorites of Mondlane.  The CD-Rom is titled Zuma Corporation, USC, n.d, and contains images of documents relating to the Life and Legacy of Eduardo Mondlane.  These materials were also microfilmed by the University of Southern California.

Series 8. Photographs, 1953-54, 1965, 1969, 1973, 1995-97, c. 2001, n.d. (1.8 l.f.)

This series consists of negatives and positive prints relating to Eduardo Mondlane and Mozambique. Includes eight b/w negatives of a boating excursion and one color negative of a group of people including Eduardo Mondlane, Cora Weiss, Amilcar Cabral (leader in the African Freedom Fighter Party), and Pasquel Macombe. Positive prints include two mounted poster sized b/w photographs of Eduardo Mondlane and five mounted b/w photographs of people performing traditional dances (possibly in Mozambique).

Series 9. Artwork and museum items, 1952-53, c. 1975, 1992, 1994, n.d. (0.8 l.f.)

This series contains a variety of items related to Africa. The artwork includes drawings by Shikhani and Charles White and paintings by Nonbento. The museum items include a fly whisk from an unidentified African tribe, a notebook with carved wooden covers, a ballot from the 1994 South African elections, and an announcement of the opening (c. 1992) of the Mayibuye Centre at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa.


The Herbert Shore Collection in Honor of Eduardo Mondlane was received in ten accessions from 1998 to 2004. Of the ten accessions, nine were received from Herbert Shore and one from his wife Yen Lu Wong.

Related Materials

Oberlin College Archives:

Student file of Eduardo Mondlane, RG 28/3
George E. Simpson Papers (30/64), Series 3. Correspondence

CAMP microfilm of 1952-62 correspondence of Eduardo and Janet Mondlane. Copies are held by Northwestern University and the Center for Research Libraries in Chicago.

Original materials (from microfilm) at Archivo Historico in Maputo, Mozambique.

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