30/307 - Herbert
Shore Collection in Honor of Eduardo C. Mondlane
|Scope and Content
The Herbert Shore Collection in Honor of Eduardo Mondlane is comprised
of two subgroups. Subgroup I is Historical Files Relating to
Herbert Shore’s Interests in the Arts and Culture. The
bulk of this subgroup consists of files relating to the Council
on The Arts, Culture, and Technology (TACT) of which Shore was
the director from 1974 to 1988. Additional material in this subgroup
concerns the performing arts, and includes playscripts, photographs,
and audio and video recordings.
Subgroup II is Historical Files Collected by Shore on Eduardo
Mondlane, Mozambique, and Africa. The materials in this subgroup
biographical material on Eduardo and Janet Mondlane, writings by
Eduardo Mondlane and others, subject files, and microfilm of original
documents relating to the Mondlanes and Mozambique. This subgroup
also contains non-textual material in the form of photographs,
audio recordings, artwork, and museum items.
Although Herbert Shore as a writer and educator worked in the
performing arts, he was also interested and involved in cultural
files in Subgroup I reflect both of these areas of Shore’s
work, though they emphasize his involvement with cultural issues.
The materials in Subgroup I illustrate the connections between
these two areas, as is seen in the files on theatrical plays that
focus on cultural issues.
Herbert Shore’s involvement in the performing arts is illustrated
by Subgroup I, Series 2. Theatrical Files. There are a number of
playscripts, some of which include staging notes. Among these is
one play by Shore titled Not with Our Fathers: a Fable for Our
Time, Out of History, but Not an Historical Play. Also documented
here is a 1964 production of William Shakespeare’s Julius
Caesar performed at St. Francis’ College in Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania. In 1981, Shore took part in a symposium on Friedrich
Dürrenmatt’s plays, which was held at the University
of Southern California; a program from the symposium is the only
documentation of his participation. Series 3 contains reel to reel
recordings of music, including several pieces from Alvin Ailey
dances. This series also includes cassette recordings of excerpts
from Brecht and a memorial of composer Ernst Toch.
From 1974 to 1988 Shore served as director of the Council on
The Arts, Culture, and Technology (TACT), a consortium of institutions,
organizations, and programs involved in interdisciplinary research
and related activities. Shore's TACT files document both its early
period as an activity of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO
and its later activities as an independent non-governmental organization.
The files include reports and correspondence on various projects
with which TACT was involved, as well as correspondence with the
U.S. National Commission and its delegates to UNESCO. The projects
documented here include a 1980 conference on “Art in a Technological
Society” and a proposed Regional Resource Center on Southern
Additional material on culture and the arts is found in Series
3. Recordings and in Series 4. Photographs. Among the photographs
are pictures of traditional crafts in New Mexico and of a Haussa
village in Africa. The recordings include audiotapes about Nicaraguan
culture as well as recordings of traditional music of the United
Although Shore’s activities as director of TACT were primarily
U.S.-based, he had a longtime interest in African culture. His
most extensive work in this area was concerned with Eduardo Mondlane
and the Mozambican liberation movement. Shore's TACT files include
material on an extensive project (1978-1981) concerning Mondlane.
This project had two key components. The first was to research
Mondlane’s life and write a biography. Following Mondlane’s
death, Shore was asked by Janet Mondlane and FRELIMO leaders to
collect materials about the slain freedom fighter. With a grant
from the Ford Foundation, Shore planned to put together a biography
of Mondlane, basing his research on this collection. By the end
of the grant period, Shore had completed a draft of the biography.
Although this draft is not in these files, the project report includes
an outline of the proposed biography. Shore’s biography of
Eduardo Mondlane does not appear to have been completed.
The biographical research project brought to light the need to
preserve the valuable material that Shore had collected. The second
part of the project developed into a project to microfilm Shore’s
collection on Eduardo Mondlane. The Cooperative Africana Microform
Project (CAMP) at Northwestern University microfilmed some 2000
pieces of correspondence, primarily between Eduardo and Janet Mondlane
from 1952-1962. This microfilm is not included in this collection,
and the original documents were returned to Janet Mondlane once
the microfilm was completed. The project files found here include
correspondence and an inventory of the material microfilmed by
CAMP. Although it was originally intended for CAMP to microfilm
all of the Shore Collection, only these letters were done. The
remainder of the collection was microfilmed at the University of
Southern California in 1996. This microfilm and related files are
in Subgroup II.
Subgroup II consists of the material collected by Herbert Shore
relating to Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique, and Africa. The most
significant resource on Eduardo Mondlane in this subgroup is the
microfilm in Series 6. This set of microfilm, done in 1996, contains
correspondence (primarily post 1962) and writings of Janet and
Eduardo Mondlane. Also included is material (1950-1989) including
correspondence, publications, and interviews concerning the Mondlanes,
FRELIMO, and the Mozambique Institute. Correspondents include George
Houser, Herbert Shore, Africa Today editor Edward A. Hawley (who
studied at the Oberlin Graduate School of Theology), Oberlin Professor
George Simpson, and FRELIMO leaders Uria Simango and Marcellino
Dos Santos. Each of the seven microfilm reels includes an inventory
of its contents, and paper copies of the inventory are also in
this series. Administrative files for this project are found in
Series 3. Subject Files, under Mondlane/Mozambique Archive Project.
The originals of the documents that are found on the microfilm
in Series 6 were deposited in the Archivo Historico in Maputo,
Mozambique. The documents in Subgroup II include materials that
were not part of the collection when it was microfilmed as well
as duplicate copies of some documents (primarily articles) which
were microfilmed. The typescript copies of selected correspondence
related to Eduardo and Janet Mondlane which comprise Series 2 appear
to be transcriptions of correspondence included on the microfilm,
although it has not been ascertained that all of these letters
are indeed found on the microfilm. With this correspondence is
a typescript copy of a daily journal kept by the Mondlanes during
a visit to Dar es Salaam, c. 1962.
Biographical information about the Mondlanes is found in Series
1, as well as on the microfilm in Series 6. Most of the biographical
files in Series 1 concern Eduardo Mondlane. These include a brief
autobiographical account written by Mondlane in 1966 as well as
correspondence and newspaper clippings about Mondlane, 1953, 1963-1969.
These files also contain newspaper clippings about his 1969 assassination
and written accounts of the funeral service in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,
and the United Nations memorial service in New York, as well as
programs from the memorial service. The biographical files also
contain selected quotations of Eduardo Mondlane, 1967-1968. The
biographical information on Janet Mondlane includes a transcript
of an interview with her and newspaper clippings.
Material on Mozambique, including the Mozambican liberation movement’s
political and educational organizations and Portugal’s relationship
with Mozambique, is located in Series 3. Subject Files. These subject
files contain some material that is duplicated by the microfilm
in Series 6, as well as additional material that was not microfilmed.
The subject files also contain administrative files about the 1996
microfilm project, including an index card inventory of the microfilmed
The subject files on FRELIMO the Mozambique Liberation Front include
general materials (including some in Portuguese), 1969 newsletters,
other FRELIMO publications, and a 1970 profile of FRELIMO. Of note
is a report on FRELIMO’s Second Congress held in 1968; this
report includes a summary of FRELIMO’s activities during
its first six years as well as resolutions outlining the liberation
movement’s goals. The Mozambique Institute was founded in
1963 to carry out FRELIMO’s educational mission. The subject
file on the Institute includes reports, newspaper clippings, and
an informational pamphlet describing its history and work.
The files on Mozambique and Portugal are not as extensive. The
Mozambique subject files include issues of the newspaper Noticias
(in Portuguese) from July 25, 1975 (the day of Mozambican independence)
and July 27, 1975. The material on Portugal focuses on Portugal’s
colonial relationship with Mozambique and includes a 1976 report “Portugal
in Mozambique” as well as newspaper clippings (1963-1976).
A significant portion of Subgroup II is made up of writings by
Eduardo Mondlane and by others. Eduardo Mondlane’s writings
(1952-1969 and undated) focus on race and cultural issues, primarily
in Africa. Many of these articles discuss Mozambique and the liberation
movement, and they include typescript copies and photocopies as
well as a few typescript drafts. Among these drafts is an introduction
to Andre Clerc’s Chitlangou, Son of a Chief. This book is
a fictionalized account based on Mondlane’s childhood experiences.
There is no material here on Mondlane’s work The Struggle
for Mozambique (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969).
Many of the articles in Subseries 2. Writings by Others are about
Eduardo Mondlane. Other writings focus on Mozambique as well as
other parts of Africa (including Malawi and Ethiopia). This subseries
also includes “Africa in the Modern World,” a transcript
of a 1952 radio discussion in which Mondlane participated. These
writings also include interviews with Mondlane (1965 and undated).
The article “A Long War Ahead” by Mondlane and William
Minter is included in Southern Africa: a Time for Change, edited
by G. Daniels. (A photocopy of the same article when it was published
in Report of the Special Study Mission to Southern Africa, edited
by Charles Diggs, Jr., is found with Mondlane’s writings
in Subseries 1.)
Subgroup II is focused primarily on Eduardo Mondlane and Mozambique,
but some of the material in this subgroup is related to other parts
of Southern Africa, including Tanzania and South Africa. Writings
such as the pamphlet “Armed Struggle in Southern Africa” from
the Africa Research Group discuss the political situation throughout
Southern Africa as a whole during the period in which Mozambicans
were fighting for independence. Additional material related to
other areas of Africa are in the audio recordings in Series 7.,
which includes recordings of African music and theater, and in
Series 9. Artwork and museum items. The Artwork and museum items
include drawings and paintings by Africans, as well as museum items
such as a ballot from the 1994 South African Elections and a horsehair
fly whisk from an unidentified African tribe.
The collection is arranged as follows:
Subgroup I. Historical Files relating to Herbert Shore’s interests in the Arts and Culture
Series 1. Council on the Arts, Culture, and Technology (TACT), 1962-63, 1971-1984, 1991, n.d. (1 oversize drawing)
Series 2. Theatrical Files, 1964, 1969-1970, 1981, 1987, n.d.
Series 3. Recordings (audio and video), 1976, 1987, 1994, n.d.
Subseries 1. Cassette Tapes, 1976, 1987, 1994, n.d.
Subseries 2. Reel to Reel tapes, n.d.
Series 4. Photographs, 1966, ca. 1980, n.d.
Subgroup II. Historical Files collected by Shore on Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique, and Africa
Series 1. Biographical Files,1950s-2003, n.d.
Series 2. Selected Correspondence by and about Eduardo and Janet Mondlane (typescripts), 1933-85, n.d.
Series 3. Subject Files, 1958-79, 1988, 1990, 1996-97, n.d.
Series 4. Writings, 1952-96, n.d.
Subseries 1. Writings by Eduardo Mondlane, 1952-68, n.d.
Subseries 2. Writings by Herbert Shore, 1973, 1975, 1982, 1996, n.d.
Subseries 3. Writings by others, 1952-98, n.d.
Series 5. Shore’s research notes and interviews, 1950s-1990s, n.d.
Series 6. Mondlane/Mozambique Archive (on microfilm), 1949-91, n.d.
Series 7. Recordings (audio), 1965-97, n.d.
Subseries 1. Cassette Tapes, 1976, 1978-1979, 1986, 1995-97, n.d.
Subseries 2. Reel to Reel Tapes, 1969-1970, n.d.
Subseries 3. VHS Tapes, 1988-89, n.d.
Subseries 4. Phonograph Recordings, 1965, n.d.
Subseries 5. CD-ROM, n.d.
Series 8. Photographs, 1953-54, 1965, 1969, 1973, 1995-97, c. 2001, n.d.
Series 9. Artwork and museum items, 1952-53, c. 1975, 1992, 1994, n.d.
Subgroup I. Historical Files relating to Herbert Shore’s
interests in the
Arts and Culture
Series 1. Council on the Arts, Culture, and Technology
(TACT), 1962-63, 1971-1986, 1991, n.d. (2.05 l.f.; 126 folders,
1 oversize drawing)
These files, arranged alphabetically, include reports and correspondence
on projects sponsored by TACT, as well as background articles and
and culture. Also found in these files is correspondence (1974-1982) with
the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO. Among the project files
is a 1978-1980
project to write a biography of Eduardo Mondlane; more extensive information
is in Subgroup II. There is also correspondence and an architectural drawing
for a proposed Space Theater for Dance, and photographs of the model dance
dome for the theater are in Series 4. Photographs.
Series 2. Theatrical Files, 1964, 1969-1970, 1981, 1987, n.d.
(0.4 l.f.; 12 folders)
Scripts, programs, and related material for miscellaneous plays,
as well as a program from a 1980 symposium on playwright Friedrich
works and an article by Kenneth Rea on “Search for the Inner Life of the
Actor.” Plays represented in these files include Herbert Shore’s
Not with our Fathers: a Fable for our time, out of history, but not an historical
play. Filed with material from a 1964 production of Julius Caesar at St. Francis’ College
in Tanzania are brochures and invitations from art exhibitions (1962-1963,
n.d.) in Nigeria.
Series 3. Recordings (audio), 1976, 1987, 1994, n.d. (1.2
l.f.; 31 reels, 10 tapes)
These cassette tapes and reel to reel recordings include programs
on cultural issues and traditional music as well as recordings
of Alvin Ailey dance music
and memorials of composer Ernst Toch and artist and activist Paul Robeson.
Series 4. Photographs, 1966, c. 1980, n.d. (0.2 l.f.; 27 photographs)
The 27 photographs in this series include mostly undated b/w
photographs of a variety of subjects, including New Mexico traditional
crafts, an unidentified
museum, scenes from a play and a variety show (1966), and a Haussa Village
Africa. The only color photograph is of an undated picture of a sex education
class in an unidentified location. There are also five b/w photographs
model of the dance dome for the proposed Martha Graham Space Theater for
and an architectural drawing for the Space Theater are in the TACT files
in Series 1.
Subgroup II. Historical Files collected by Shore on Eduardo Mondlane,
Mozambique, and Africa
Series 1. Biographical Files, 1950s-2003, n.d. (1.0 l.f.;
This series contains biographical material on Eduardo and Janet
Mondlane. The material on Eduardo Mondlane includes numerous
articles about his 1969
as well as programs from memorial services and a brief autobiographical
summary written by Mondlane in 1966. The material on Janet Mondlane includes
of an undated interview and newspaper clippings.
Series 2. Selected Correspondence by and about Eduardo and
Janet Mondlane (typescripts, transcriptions, photocopies, handwritten,),
1933-85, n.d. (0.6 l.f.; 33 folders)
These are typescript copies of correspondence written by Eduardo
and Janet Mondlane as well as correspondence about the Mondlanes
George Houser of the American Committee on Africa. They appear to be
transcriptions from correspondence on the microfilm in Series 6. Attached
to the correspondence
in the last folder is a typescript copy of a daily journal from a visit
the Mondlanes made to Dar es Salaam (c. 1962).
Series 3. Subject Files, 1958-79, 1988, 1990, 1996-97, n.d. (0.4
l.f.; 29 folders, oversize newspapers)
This series contains material about the Mozambican liberation
movement and files on the 1996 project to microfilm the Herbert
Shore’s collection on Mondlane
and Mozambique. The files on liberation movement cover Mozambique generally and
the country’s colonial relationship with Portugal, as well
as FRELIMO (the Mozambique Liberation Front) and the Mozambique
Series 4. Writings, 1952-1996, n.d. (1.6 l.f.; 80 folders)
The writings are arranged in three subseries: 1. Writings by
Eduardo Mondlane, 2. Writings by Herbert Shore, and 3. Writings
by Others. The writings byEduardo Mondlane discuss Mozambique
and the liberation movement, as well as race and cultural issues
in other areas (primarily African). There are photocopies and
typescript copies of Mondlane’s articles; there are also
a few typescript drafts. Among these drafts are two drafts of
an introduction to Andre Clerc’s Chitlangou, Son of a Chief,
which was based on Mondlane’s childhood experiences in
Mozambique. The writings by Herbert Shore consist of Shore's
writings about Eduardo Mondlane, Africa and Apartheid. Also included
are materials relating to Shore's work on a biography of Eduardo
Mondlane. Most of the Writings by Others are about Mozambique
and Eduardo Mondlane. There are also pieces about other parts
of Africa, including Malawi and Ethiopia.
Series 5. Shore’s research notes, 1950s-90s,
n.d. (1.2 l.f.; 21 folders, index cards)
These include notes from interviews with Mia Adjali of the
United Methodist Women’s
Division and with Margaret and Colin Legum. These interviews discuss
Eduardo Mondlane. This series also contains a transcription of
a tape recording in which
George Houser recorded his observations during an October 1975
trip to Africa; most of his remarks concern Mozambique which
had been granted independence earlier
Series 6. Mondlane/Mozambique Archive (on microfilm), 1949-1991,
n.d. (0.6 l.f.; 2 folders, 8 reels of microfilm)
This microfilm contains Herbert Shore’s collection of material documenting
Eduardo Mondlane, the Mozambican liberation struggle, and developments in Mozambique
since it became independent in 1975. Approximately 4000 items were microfilmed,
including correspondence of Eduardo and Janet Mondlane and others, writings by
and about the Mondlanes, and articles and other materials collected by Eduardo
Mondlane. Most of this material is in English, but there are also items in Portuguese
and French. A number of letters that are in Portuguese have English translations.
There are eight rolls of microfilm. Rolls 1 and 2 contain material from Eduardo
Mondlane (1950-1970, n.d.), including, writings and addresses, interviews, and
correspondence. Roll 3 contains material from Janet Mondlane (1951-1991, n.d.),
consisting primarily of correspondence but also including a few writings and
interviews. Also on Roll 3 is material on the Mozambique Institute (1963-1974,
n.d.), including correspondence, reports, proposals, and photographs. Reels 4,
5, and 6 contain materials about the Mondlanes and their work in Mozambique.
These include articles (1949-1989, n.d.), correspondence (1950-1989, n.d.) from
individuals who knew Eduardo Mondlane or had an interest in Mozambique, Shore’s
research notes (1963-1986, n.d.), and memorials and tributes
to Eduardo Mondlane (1969-1978, n.d.). Roll 7 contains FRELIMO
publications (1963-1975, n.d.) and
petitions and statements (1962-1974, n.d.) made by Eduardo Mondlane
and other FRELIMO leaders to the United Nations. Each microfilm
reel includes an inventory
of its contents, and paper copies of these inventories have been
made to facilitate use. Copies of some of the material included
on the microfilm may be found in
Series 1-5. Roll 8 contains an inventory of the contents of the
rolls 1-7, arranged alphabetically by category. For on-site reference use only.
Series 7. Recordings (audio and video) 1965, 1969-70, 1976,
1978-79, 1986, 1988-89, 1995-97, n.d. (2.0 l.f.)
This series is divided into five subseries: Cassette Tapes, Reel to Reel Recordings, VHS Tapes, Phonograph Recordings and CD-ROM. The recordings in the first three subseries are primarily concerned with Mozambique, though there are also recordings on South Africa and Tanzania. They include interviews with Janet Mondlane, Africa Today editor George Houser, FRELIMO president Samora Moises Machel, Peter and Cora Weiss, and others discussing Eduardo Mondlane and Mozambique. The reel to reel recordings include a 1970 speech by FRELIMO leader Marcellino Dos Santos and the United Nations memorial service for Eduardo Mondlane, held in New York in February 1969. There are also recordings of Swahili and of African music and theater. The video recordings portray life in Africa (probably Mozambique) and tell the story of the Mozambican independence struggle. The fourth subseries consists of two phonograph recordings of African music, noted to be personal favorites of Mondlane. The CD-Rom is titled Zuma Corporation, USC, n.d, and contains images of documents relating to the Life and Legacy of Eduardo Mondlane. These materials were also microfilmed by the University of Southern California.
Series 8. Photographs, 1953-54, 1965, 1969, 1973, 1995-97,
c. 2001, n.d. (1.8 l.f.)
This series consists of negatives and positive prints relating
to Eduardo Mondlane and Mozambique. Includes eight b/w negatives
of a boating
and one color
negative of a group
of people including Eduardo Mondlane, Cora Weiss, Amilcar
(leader in the African Freedom Fighter Party), and Pasquel
two mounted poster sized b/w photographs of Eduardo Mondlane
and five mounted b/w photographs of people performing traditional
Series 9. Artwork and museum items, 1952-53, c. 1975, 1992,
1994, n.d. (0.8 l.f.)
This series contains a variety of items related to Africa. The
artwork includes drawings by Shikhani and Charles White and
Nonbento. The museum
items include a fly whisk from an unidentified African tribe,
a notebook with carved wooden covers, a ballot from the 1994
announcement of the opening (c. 1992) of the Mayibuye Centre
at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa.
The Herbert Shore Collection in Honor of Eduardo Mondlane was
received in ten accessions from 1998 to 2004. Of the ten accessions,
nine were received from Herbert Shore and one from his wife Yen
Oberlin College Archives:
Student file of Eduardo Mondlane, RG 28/3
George E. Simpson Papers (30/64), Series 3. Correspondence
CAMP microfilm of 1952-62 correspondence of Eduardo and Janet
Mondlane. Copies are held by Northwestern University and the
Center for Research Libraries in
Original materials (from microfilm) at Archivo Historico in Maputo,